When ammunition and handgun sales are totaled, the shooting public voted with their dollars, and the 9mm Luger is easily our most popular defensive handgun cartridge. The 9mm has eclipsed the .40 S&W in sales—largely due to the .40’s snappy recoil in compact pistols. The 9mm offers a good balance of ballistics including high velocity, good penetration, and excellent accuracy in the right handgun.
The slightly tapered cartridge case is a plus in feed reliability. The cartridge is small in size—allowing more to be carried in a magazine and on the person. The cartridge is a high pressure number and very efficient in modern loads. I respect the 9mm and use it often.
Unlike some advocates of the 9mm, I do not ignore physics and claim the 9mm is as effective as the .40 or .45 caliber pistols. Of course it isn’t, because it cannot be. Physics cannot be changed. However, the balance of power and controllability is ideal for most shooters.
The 9mm is easy to control in a handgun of 20 ounces or more. In service-size handguns, such as the Glock 19, the cartridge is downright docile. In a steel-frame pistol such as the Browning Hi Power or CZ 75, the 9mm offers brilliantly rapid recoil recovery. The 9mm is easily controlled in the larger pistols and never becomes a bear even in sub compact pistols.
Those planning to later move on to heavier calibers should begin with the 9mm Luger cartridge and move on after they have mastered the 9mm.
I have seen a number of students come to my classes with a handgun that recoils too much. Most often these handguns were compact .40s. A new student will become discouraged or develop a bad flinch that is difficult to train away. The single most important component of combat marksmanship is shot placement Therefore, we can reasonably deduce that the typical beginning shooter is well served with the 9mm.
If you insist on the larger calibers, then you should learn to use a full-size steel-frame .45 or a Glock 22 when choosing the .40 caliber cartridge. If the pistol is too heavy, you will not wear it. If it kicks too much you will not practice with it.
It isn’t unusual to see special deals on the 9mm Luger cartridge. FMJ loads are commonly available at good prices. At sale prices, 9mm FMJ is often half the price of comparable .40 and .45 caliber ammunition. Even premium defensive ammunition is less than the larger calibers. On average, recent searches indicate that 9mm Luger ammunition may be had in a 500-round quantity for the average price of 350 comparable .45 ACP cartridges. This means more practice. Yet, it is the larger caliber than demands more practice ammunition to master! Use the logic ladder.
Some of the finest handguns in the world are chambered for the 9mm Luger. These include the SIG P226, Beretta 92, HK VP9, and Glock 19. They are famously reliable and accurate. Even inexpensive 9mm pistols such as the Canik T100 will get the job done, simply with a little less style.
This is the big question. Despite some pretty strange statements and non-standard science, the 9mm cannot produce a wound equal to the .45 ACP—given similar bullet technology. All you need is water or ballistic gelatin to test penetration and expansion. Or, you could simply consult the results posted by the major makers.
A loading with good quality control and cartridge integrity is the first choice. Every maker doesn’t have the same quality control, primer seal and case mouth seal, and bullet technology. The loading must maintain the balance of expansion and penetration. This means adequate penetration must not be compromised. The 9mm has enough energy to maintain high-velocity penetration and expansion.
No, the 9mm isn’t my choice for defense against a pack of feral dogs or a bear, but for most personal defense situations the 9mm has the necessary power with proper loads to get the job done. And the best loads mean a lot! The 9mm FMJ loads we use for practice are very poor defensive loads. However, by comparison, the .45 ACP 230-grain FMJ is a proven military and defense loading. That being said, few of us deploy a FMJ load if we have a choice. (I speak from personal experience and research including police and military after action reports, not secret sources and junk science.)
As an example, Hornady recently introduced a 124-grain XTP +P load in the American Gunner line. This loading is affordable and demonstrates excellent performance in my personal testing. Winchester offers a 124-grain PDX in 124-grain +P that offers excellent wound ballistics. Speer offers a 124-grain Gold Dot +P load with a bullet especially designed to expand at reduced velocity when fired in a short barrel handgun.
If you prefer not to use a +P loading, there are non +P loads that offer good performance. The Hornady 124-grain XTP is among these. The Winchester Silvertip has been around for decades—although the newest version is considerably improved over the original. SIG Sauer Elite offers a V Crown JHP with excellent performance. The Federal Cartridge Company 124-grain HST is a fine choice, and Federal has recently introduced a low recoil 150-grain HST 9mm with surprising performance. These loads offer good performance, are readily available, and exhibit excellent quality control. The 9mm is a good choice for personal defense given a reliable handgun and intelligent ammunition choice. Choose well and shoot straight.
|Ruger SR1911 9mm With a 4.25-inch Barrel|
|Velocity/Penetration in Water||Expansion|
|Hornady 124-grain XTP||1090 fps/16 inches||.54|
|Hornady 124-grain XTP +P||1180 fps/17 inches||.66|
|Winchester 115-grain Silvertip||1150 fps/11 inches||.64|
|Winchester 124-grain PDX +P||1190 fps/16 inches||.65|
|Gorilla Ammunition 135-grain||960 fps/18 inches||.70|
|SIG Sauer Elite 124-grain V Crown||1165 fps/18 inches||.66|
|Speer Gold Dot 124-grain +P Short Barrel||1201 fps/15 inches||.68|
|Federal 124-grain HST||1155 fps/18 inches||.72|
Power versus accuracy. Do you prefer the 9mm or another caliber? Are you willing to trust your life to the 9mm? Share your answers and preferred cartridge for self-defense in the comment section.