Personal Defense With Limits — Caliber Selection

Woman with pink ear muffs shooting a Glock handgun

Personal Defense With Limits

When discussing handguns for personal defense there are arguments put forward that are at odds with the reality I have observed. After several years of university study, and 30 years as an armed professional, I have a rather confined idea of realism. I look for vetted information and demand an internal consistency from experiments and data. I feel that my conclusions are valid.

Woman with pink ear muffs shooting a Glock handgun
This instructor finds the Glock 43 9mm an ideal personal defense firearm.

The handgun caliber and type as well as ammunition choices are debated often. The type of handgun—Glock, SIG, or 1911—is debated. Intelligent choice is important but not the only criteria for personal defense. The bottom line must always be quality and reliability. I would never trust my life to a second or third quality handgun, yet many shooters seem unable to discern quality.

In cartridge selection, I value physics over junk science and favor scientific testing over opinion. An hour of range time is more valuable than a month of discussion. I favor service grade handguns and realistic service cartridges backed by a major maker. As for personal experience, an important distinction is that I have seen things and seeing things often means I arrived after the shooting. Some victims were largely unaffected by their wounds and others were DRT. (Dead right there.)

Based on observations and experience, a realistic minimum defensive cartridge is the .38 Special with the 9mm Luger the baseline in self-loading handguns. Each provides good wound ballistics in a proper loading with a balance of penetration and expansion. With all handgun cartridges, proper shot placement means the most. The .38 and 9mm calibers are particularly dismal with round nose or full metal jacketed non-expanding ammunition. Just because these calibers are enough with proper shot placement doesn’t mean lesser cartridges will also work well with good shot placement.

TriStar T100 and Stoeger Cougar handguns with ammunition boxes
These compact 9mm handguns, the TriStar T100 and the Stoeger Cougar, are not expensive but work well. The 9mm is comfortable to fire in these handguns.

The .380 ACP tends to bounce off bone with FMJ loads, and most JHP loads do not offer enough penetration. The .32 calibers are weaker still. Yet, I am not blind to the needs of my brothers and sisters that are disadvantaged by a physical problem that prevents their mastering a proven defensive caliber. As a writer and trainer, I must interpret their needs realistically and offer an answer. Not every shooter can control the 1911 .45, .357 Magnum revolver, or CZ 75 .40 caliber pistol.

The young, the elderly, and those with various joint problems simply are not going to be able to master such a handgun. I have considerable insight into such difficulties. I use a cane occasionally and when hiking a walking staff. Fortunately, my hands and wrists are unaffected, but then I do not own or fire the .44 Magnum revolver. I most often deploy the 1911 .45, sometimes the CZ 75 .40, and occasionally the Glock 19 9mm or a .357 Magnum revolver.


Some like to recommend a choice based upon its appearance and certain properties such as a light weight. I prefer my recommendations to be based on performance. Let’s look at the difficulties relating to certain handguns. I am going to have to assume that the shooter is willing to practice with the handguns and calibers I recommend, otherwise nothing hypostasized is worthwhile. Without a willingness to learn nothing is solved.

Shooting a .357 Magnum with large blast
The .357 Magnum offers plenty of blast and recoil!

Problems with some handguns include heavy recoil, recoil tolerance of the shooter, sensitivity to recoil as it is variously called, and also the expense of certain handguns. I have encountered such problems during training and addressed each. Some handguns are intolerable even to trained shooters; others may be mastered with practice. Among the worst choices for inexperienced shooters are the sub compact .40 caliber handguns. I have never seen good results with these handguns. Yet, the beginner often shows up with such a handgun.

A terrible choice is the lightweight .357 Magnum revolver. Add barrel ports to this revolver and you have a handgun that is dangerous to the shooter if held in the retention position. Even more reasonable combinations such as the aluminum frame 1911 .45 can be difficult to master. I support the Pythagorean dictum that numbers are the essence of things. I live and choose by numbers. Big bore handguns are more effective but are of little use if you cannot direct accurate fire. A steel frame GI .45 loaded with standard pressure ammunition is a controllable handgun, a lightweight .45 with +P loads is not.

Going Light

If you are using the .45 ACP handgun, load selection can make the handgun more pleasant to fire. The Hornady American Gunner load, as an example, uses a 185-grain JHP at nearly 1,000 fps. The light bullet results in less recoil. In 9mm, the Hornady 124-grain XTP is a credible choice without +P recoil. I am all for maintaining the service type caliber by using light loads. Hornady also offers the excellent Hornady Lite loads, a 90-grain .38 Special and a 100-grain 9mm.

SIG 1911-22 handgun with a box of CCI .22 LR ammunition
The SIG 1911-22 is one gun that instills confidence and can be downright fun to use and fire.

Designed for compact handguns and to limit recoil, these are excellent all-around loads. Another combination I find useful for many shooters is the .38 Special 148-grain target wadcutter. At about 750 fps, this load is docile in a steel frame four-inch barrel revolver, and ideal for home defense for a recoil sensitive shooter. The Federal match is quite accurate. This load cuts a .358-inch hole. I have yet to see a .32 caliber load that equals this load, JHP or not, and I would also prefer this load combination to any .380 ACP loading. By the same token, a steel frame 1911 in 9mm Luger caliber is very controllable, even with +P loads, and makes for an excellent defensive combination. The Speer Gold Dot 124-grain load is good choice for the full size 9mm.

The .22

One of my mentors once said that if he could not carry at least a .38 Special he had just as soon have a .22. Like many experienced shooters of his generation, he dismissed the .25, .32, and .380 calibers. For many reasons, there are those that cannot master the .38 or 9mm even with light loads. For those shooters, the .22 Long Rifle is viable. With 40-grain loads such as the Winchester Super X the .22 offers adequate penetration to reach vital organs. I am not certain the bullet bounces in the body; some say but the bullet will bounce off bone, which isn’t ideal. Shot placement will be everything.

Among my favorite .22 caliber handguns is the SIG 1911-22. It is reliable, accurate, easy to shoot well, and offers real speed into action. This handgun will place five rounds of CCI Velociter into a group of 1.25 inches at 15 yards. The SIG 1911 holds 10 rounds in the magazine, or 14 with the CH magazine modification. This is among my favorite handguns, and if I could no longer handle at least the 9mm this would be my sidearm. It is inexpensive to obtain and practice ammunition is inexpensive, allowing enough practice to master the piece.

Bob Campbell Shooting a 1911 handgun
The author regards the 9mm 1911—a 39 ounce handgun—as among the greatest combinations of low recoil and power.

For some, the expense of a center fire handgun is daunting. Although good self-loaders such as the Bersa line are affordable, some find this modest price a challenge. A .22 caliber handgun that always works and exhibits a high degree of accuracy is the Heritage Rough Rider. I use this handgun in indoctrinating young shooters to the handgun. The single action revolver never seems to give trouble. It is accurate enough for personal defense.

The Winchester Super X load will group 5 shots into 2 inches at 15 yards. An attractive option is the .22 Magnum cylinder. The .22 Magnum is a fine pest, varmint and small game load with considerably more power than the .22 LR. Hornady’s purpose-designed 45-grain Critical Defense load is ideal for personal defense. The caliber is minimal. However, I would have as much confidence in this caliber as the .32 Magnum, but then I hope never to have to use either.


The Heritage revolver offers real economy. The man or woman behind the gun will count for the most. Objective realism and a person’s circumstance must be considered. You are far from naked before your enemies with a .22 caliber handgun that you have mastered. If you are able to move to more powerful handguns, the .22 is an excellent trainer.

Beretta 92 on a pink target
The Beretta 92 compact is a great handgun with excellent accuracy potential and world class reliability. Recoil is little if any more than the full size Beretta 92.

Often a sharp standpoint seems presumptuous and inspires caution. I have seen this in comments on my work. I stringently prefer the big bore handgun based not on myth or an educated guess but education, research, and personal experience. I feel qualified to describe reality as it is. I do not attribute to anything qualities it does not possess. I will stress again that if you are able to master a larger caliber, do so. Some commentators, I am afraid, pursue an independent reality. A realistic description always beats ‘what if.’

The 9mm remains a realistic minimum with proper loads and in the hands of a skilled shooter may lay claim to being a universally capable tactical handgun. For those that cannot handle the 9mm for physical or financial reasons—and we all may be heading that way or have been there—it is better to have something than nothing. First, consider a handgun of the appropriate weight for the caliber. Next, consider a load of either standard pressure or one of the various ‘Lite’ or target loads. Then consider a .22 caliber handgun. Most of all practice, master the handgun, and use good tactics.

What is your favorite go-to defense caliber? Share it in the comment section.

The Mission of Cheaper Than Dirt!'s blog, The Shooter's Log, is to provide information—not opinions—to our customers and the shooting community. We want you, our readers, to be able to make informed decisions. The information provided here does not represent the views of Cheaper Than Dirt!

Comments (34)

  1. Reference to grainage of .22 cal rounds, typically, why are hollow pointed rounds at 36 grains and the more bullisticlly round pointed streamline rounds are 40 grains? Logically, I would think it should be reversed because the hollow point has the air damn in the center of the round, thus not as streamedlined. Why? Recently I’ve seen 67 grain 22 cal rounds. What gun are they designed for?

    1. Hollowpoint is lighter to be a bit faster.

      The 67 grain– what caliber? .22?

      Must be heavy subsonic.

    2. I’m certainly no expert about this but, the only 67 grain .22 cal I can think of is a Remington hollowpoint boatail in .223 cal.

  2. My carry gun is a Colt Defender 45 ACP. Why go bang bang when you will only need to go bang. With the proper training and a little practice, this piece is very easy to use and a follow-up shot if needed is not as difficult as everyone seems to say it is. I shoot this pistol right out of the box as well as a full sized target grade national match Colt Mark IV Series 80 without any perceived control issues. Practice Practice Practice.

  3. 22 short and maybe 22 long I tend to agree with you. But a 22 LR with 1580 fps like a Remington yellow jacket will definitely go in and bounce around.

  4. I carry anything from a .380 ACP via a Taurus PT738 or S&W Bodyguard to a .45 ACP round in either a S&W Compact to a military 1911 model as a carry weapon, with varying compact to full sized .38 caliber or 357 Magnum, .9mm or 40 caliber options also available in either semi-automatic or revolver. Depends what the weather is like and the clothing options or where I might be at the time I elect to carry a firearm. I have also carried .22LR and .25 caliber handguns as secondary weapons. Although Texas is now an open carry state, I do not advocate this option. Concealed carry is always the best option as the element of surprise is a plus in a confrontation where deadly force becomes imminent and only as a last resort. Whatever someone choices to carry, do it legally and with common sense. It could save you from a criminal charge, litigation or a guilty conscience the rest of your life.

  5. I prefer to carry my Glock 21. I think the author is right about not carrying more than you can handle…1 hit with a 22 is better than a bunch of misses with something bigger….shoot what you can HIT with.

  6. Very interesting article. It seems like some commentators are leaning towards the .22 cal. I recently purchased a Kel-Tec PMR 30 .22 magnum.
    After shooting it at the range, I was thoroughly impressed. It functioned well with various ammo and I shot the best groups ever, with a pistol.
    The .22 magnum is a serious round, especially if you have 30 rounds at your disposal.

  7. I am VERY thankful I have a published article I can refer doubting Thomas’ to when they start to bad mouth 22LR. I can’t tell you how many 22LRs I have dug out of people in the ED or in my OR. The issue of @@LR is purely an Internet blackball and it is unjustified. Do the math what is more effective at stopping (not killing per se because I HOPE that none of you carry with the purpose of fatality as the primary goal) The options are 2 fairly placed 45 cal rounds from say an 1911 or 4 or 5 perfectly placed 22LR rounds from any choice of guns chambered in it? The answer from a surgical perspective is BY far the 22LR. The amount of damage caused by that much copper or lead or a combination is simply devastating. It is like a shotgun versus a rifle. Taking into account the stress of the situation and the likelihood that an average individual even with some training will lock up and likely miss with anything but the easiest of guns the potential to put massive lead on target is FAR greater with the 22LR then most other calibers. So the issue comes down to well placed or randomly placed. SURE if I KNOW I am going to hit what I aim at then hell use a 44 Magnum and get it done for that matter go all the way to 50 cal but good luck getting the bullet where you intend to let alone 2 or 3 of them. So if the issue is no longer metal mass it is the likelihood that you will hit what you intend to then the 22LR in any situation is most likely to hit.
    Wait until the likes of Polycase and Ruger and Lehigh Ammo start to build ammo for the 22LR and you will see what was labeled a toy plinker to become a deadly accurate self defense caliber with serious potential. I have seen some of the new technology from Polycase in bigger calibers and once we allow them to build it into smaller ones the outcome is going to change the race to self defense options. Sure the old school lead round point in 22LR might be all but useless but jacketed hollow points are showing up and have been for some time and newer composite bullets with amazing accuracy no muzzle lift no recoil and good penetration as well as tissue destruction will change the game. Dr D

    1. I agree. I shoot with an ER doc and an ER nurse and both have told me horror stories about what a .22 round can do. They said usually the victims bleed out, or if they are shot in the head, the bullet bounces around in the skull and shreds the brain.

    2. This horror story about the bouncing .22 has been around so long that it is gray headed with a long gray beard. The average .22 LR, Short, or Long is a copper-washed, soft lead bullet that deforms rapidly on striking bone and stops, period. Knew a kid, years ago, was shot in the head by a .22. It did impair him, somewhat, mentally, but it certainly DID NOT shred his brain. He functioned normally without any help, lived on his own and held a job, I know, I was asst. foreman in a welding shop. He was hired and it was my job to teach him to weld and put oil tanks together, which he did quite well. So I say Bull S**t to bouncing .22 cal. bullets.

  8. I disagree with the article to this extent.
    New ammo makes 380 ACP a matter of what you shoot and how well you shoot it.
    The Hornaday Critical Defense round is a game changer. It penetrates as needed, has two sonic activations with unreal lead scatter, does not exit, h a s low velocity for surroundings safety, and less flash for night use. No muzzle flip

  9. My wife does not like the recoil of a 9, and can’t work the slide easily. I got her a PK380 because she could work the slide. She didn’t like the recoil of the 380 either. She loves the 22 but I don’t trust most of the pistols to work. I saw an add for the Ruger Charger (I didn’t know the pistol was made) and decided to get one because of the reliability of the 10/22 and I have 25 round mags for it. We both love it, and 25 rounds of 22’s out of a 10″ barrel should do the trick most of the time. She is not scared to shoot it, no recoil, and lots of rounds. For her the Charger is the best option.

  10. Very well thought out article and brings to light some of the factors that novices and experts alike have argued for years. However, I did not once see the term “Knock-down” or “stopping power”. used. I agree with many responders that one should start out small and work up to a caliber that has “stopping power”. I’ve carried a .45 full steel framed 1911 for over sixty years. I found that the gun is very manageable if one is careful in ammo selection. For instance the “Liberty” 78 grain projectile produces less recoil than many of the smaller calibers but the devastating wound channel produced by the ammo is “stopping power” on steroids. As with any “light weight round” the perceived and actual recoil is greatly reduced so your firearm jump is one or two inches at most so you are back on target quickly. The addition of a muzzle brake tames the recoil even farther. The biggest problem is hiding this hand cannon while packing it on you body but with a little effort this can be over-come. Of late I have replaced my .45 (Springfield Operator) with a kit from Clark Custom Guns and now sport a .460 Rowland. With it’s muzzle brake it is no more intimidating to fire that a .38 special and this caliber WILL stop just about anything or anybody that has harmful intent meant in your direction. Again, like other have said, practice is the golden word. If you don’t pay your dues to the “Practice ethic” you might as well carry a baseball bat.

  11. I have been a rifle person all my life with the one exception of a 1958 Ruger Blackhawk .44 Mag that i bought brand new as a backup when i started black bear hunting when i was 17. ( opps…have i dated myself?) I am too old to run anymore and packing a rifle everywhere is just down right tiresome. I have numerous hand guns i can carry, as i kept buying, looking for the “perfect” carry. The .44 Mag is still my favorite effect gun, especially with Mag-Safe 44 Special 92-gr +P. No kick, very accurate, not too noisy, and disintegrates watermelons, water bottles, etc. with a single shot. Unfortunately, the 7 & 1/2 inch barrel just doesn’t quite cut it for a conceal carry. BUT, the biggest downside is the time it takes to get to it and get the first shot off. I have tried and tried but the fastest i can get a shot off on target with it is 3 seconds. (I have tried; 40S&W, 45ACP, 22LR, 357Mag, 38Spec, 10mm, in a shoulder holster with only slightly better results…2.1) NOT acceptable IMHO. The solution I have come up with is a five shot .22 Mag that fits in my front pocket, first shot is launched in 1.2-1.4 secs on target with the gun empty in under 3. Ten years in the military tells me suppressive fire is GOOD thing! (Till you can get to the REAL weapons!) So my secondary can be any of the aforementioned, but for me it is all about that first shot…whatever it might be.

  12. I have said it before & I will say it again, regardless of caliber, well-placed shots will incapacitate or kill a bad guy. Sure we can argue about environmental conditions and clothing that effect the end result but an accurate shot into a vital area works whether it makes a quarter inch hole, or a half-inch hole, or 30 or 40 little 1 mm holes from a shotshell.

  13. Very well thought out article. My preferred carry pistol is the Beretta M9-proven reliability and performance. Generally I prefer full sized firearms as the author notes that they tend to handle recoil better because of their weight. That said, each shooter should try out different combinations of firearms and loads to determine what they are most accurate with. Accuracy with aiming is the most critical aspect-ballistic performance means nothing if you can’t hit the target!

  14. If you still think .22 ammo is unreliable, then you are relying on old info, or you are buying junk. It has been scarce the last few years, which is odd or maybe intentional, but my .22 is better than your 9, because I shoot it….. Lots. Your 9 is a money eating show piece.

  15. Fantastic article!

    Some of the real-world concerns for those of us who are physically impaired were presented in an intelligent, empirical manner.

    Another commenter noted that there was no discussion of the 327 Magnum, but then the author covered such a wide range of other calibers but one can simply not fit in everything into one article.

    This article is the type of article I have been commenting about for so long: not everyone is healthy, not everyone can financially afford to go to the range one two three times a week, not everyone is capable of handling a full-frame weapon in 9 millimeter or larger calibers: that’s just the way it is for millions of people in America.

    We need real world alternatives to the norm that healthy people have and this article gets us headed in the right direction.

    Thank you for writing a quality article and I look forward to reading more such articles.

    1. JR Bailey,

      Thanks for reading and for always interesting comments.

      Good points you have made as well–



    2. I mirror JR Bailey in saying that was a great article and not one sided. You didn’t even mention the word GLOCK one time! haha

      One a side note, I have the Sig 1911-22 that me and my GF shoot quite regularly. We have found that on the full size 1911 framed .22’s that you must use a bullet that shoots faster than 1275 FPS so the slide will work as designed. We did more testing and found that copper plated bullets fire better than standard lead. With these two small adjustments to the full size 1911-22 it is a great shooter and keeps my GF coming back to the range!

  16. Find 32ACP is not all that bad. Not a fan of the 22 and most people who compare stats between the two forget most data for the 22 is published with stats for a longer barrel. A Ruger SR22 with 3.5″ barrel has nothing over a PP with 3.9.” Out of a decent size pistol like a Walther PP the recoil is more manageable. The older person will find it easier to just even load the magazine. Manipulate the slide, I had an older lady find she could work the action on some 32’s but nothing larger.

  17. Nice article. I shoot the 9mm 45’s 380 acp and on occasion I even shoot the 22 Cal. There are times when I need to carry a small pocket pistol and for that I use my Kahr 380 acp with JHP. I will have to take your word as to the 380 acp jacketed round nose bouncing off bone because I have never been a position to have that verified nor do I care to be. I would never use or trust my life to a 22 Cal no matter if it is a 22 LR, 22 mini mag or a 22 magnum. It is a rimfire ammunition and we all know that rimfire ammunition more than any other ammunition fails. The last thing anyone needs is a misfire when your life is on the line and 22 Cal rimfire ammunition is noted for misfires. You mentioned a few other smaller calibers and I would definitely recommend the 25 Cal, the 32 Cal over a rimfire ammunition any day of the week. At least the 25/32 Cal are center fire ammunition and all though these are smaller calibers the chance of experiencing a misfire are reduced considerable as compared to the 22 Cal rimfire ammunition.

  18. My wife can handle a 1911 just as easily as she can her Beretta 92, and she hits what she aims at. But, I know there are people who need to work with lower power calibers. In every case, a reliable gun shooting a high quality round will make a difference. And practice . . . practice, practice, practice.

    We hit the range at least weekly and when we can, twice a week. In between we train with Airsoft and practice drawing and shooting on the air gun range we built in our basement.

  19. When you discuss the 22 rimfire for defense you have to consider the Kel-Tec PMR-30 22 Magnum Semi-Auto Pistol. This lightweight pistol is accurate when feed it ammo it likes. Plus you have 31 rounds available. The 22 WinMag has the power to penetrate 18 inches of ballistic gel so it can get the job done.

    1. My EDC is an M&P22 with Remington Yellow jacket JHPs with 1580 fps. I have no qualms about carrying it.

  20. I was disappointed to see that the .327 Federal Magnum was not discussed in the “Going Light” part of this piece. The .327 Federal Magnum produces a muzzle energy level that is similar to the .45 ACP, and it is quite manageable in smaller carry revolvers such as Ruger’s LCR. Handguns chambered for the .327 Federal Magnum can also use the lighter loaded .32 H&R Magnum and the .32 S&W Long. WIth the newer defensive ammunition that is available today, the ,327 Federal Magnum is worth an in depth look for those who are comfortable carrying a small revolver.

  21. Nice article. I hate 45’s bcause every time I shoot one, I regret it. Same with my airweight 38spl. The 38, however, is small, light and very concealble, so I carry it. At home, next the bed is a S&W 9MM, handloaded with XTPs. If I can’t protect myself with 15 rounds, I’m not worth protecting. An interesting take on the 22. Those little, inexpensive Heritages are one of the best buys in the industry. Nicely built, work every time, and a re great for practice for cheap. I like the little safety, easy to use while bringing the gun up, and never had one fail.

    1. “I hate 45’s bcause every time I shoot one, I regret it.”

      Why do you regret it? A .45 shot from a well designed pistol is nothing to regret. Would you please share with us what it is about it you regret?

      My wife loves her 1911 in .45 as much or more than her Beretta 92 in 9mm. I will admit that my 1911 tactical has more recoil than my wife’s Government model or my Glock 21. It’s all a matter of choosing the right gun.

  22. Great writing. All calibers you mentioned are viable defensive loads. Was never a fan of .25s, .380s are okay. My carry is my 1911 A1 in .45 ACP. When circumstances keep me fro carrying it, I carry my N.A. revolver in.22 LR. Had a female friend that due to age and such, opted to carry a small revolver in .32 S&W Short. I did the ballistics for her to ensure that it would do the job. No fancy ballistic jell, but flesh & bone of a dead animal.Great penetration and didn’t bounce off of bone. The only problem with the .32 S&W Short was finding ammo.

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