The .38 Special Revolver Cartridge

Powerful, accurate and reliable, the .38 Special is among our most under-appreciated cartridges. While most sales in premium ammunition these days gear toward the defensive shooter packing a two-inch barrel revolver, the .38 has much utility in the field.

Let’s Begin with a Bit of History

The original mid-bore handgun in widespread use was the .36 Colt Navy, a cap and ball revolver. In common with the modern .38 +P, the .36 Navy was effective when the soft round ball expanded. At longer range, when expansion fell off due to a loss of velocity, the effect was less.

The era of cartridge revolver and centerfire handguns introduced the .38 Smith & Wesson and the .38 Colt. The .38 Colt was offered in the short Colt with a .765-inch case length for conversion of the black powder cartridge revolver. The Colt Lightning, and later the dismal 1892 Colt, used the .38 Colt cartridge. The .38 Smith & Wesson is a short fat obsolete cartridge that uses a .360-inch bullet.

When chambered in the Military and Police revolver, the .38 Smith & Wesson is a very accurate number. It also received a new lease on life as the .38/200 Webley when loaded with a 200-grain bullet. The .38 Smith & Wesson Special is based upon the .38 Long Colt, an interesting situation. None of these loads was as effective as the earlier Colt Navy, as the bullet simply did not upset as the softball had.

Found to be a worthless martial cartridge, some effort was expended to upgrade the .38 Long Colt was cartridge. The Colt 1892 revolver’s lockwork was less than robust. Smith & Wesson received the contract award for their new Military and Police .38 caliber double-action revolver. In 1899, Smith & Wesson introduced the cartridge along with the M&P in 1899. With a 1.155-inch cartridge case, the .38 Special is slightly longer than the .38 Colt. The ballistics advantage was deemed significant with the Special jolting a 158-grain bullet to 850 fps versus the Colt’s 152 grains at 750 fps.

The .38 Colt cartridge could be fired in the Special cylinder. The .38 Smith & Wesson—shorter and fatter—can not be chambered in the .38 Special cylinder. The chamber dimensions simply made complete sense, as the new revolver would accommodate considerable stores of the Colt ammunition. The .38 Special did not prove to be a good man stopper in the original loading. It was a more powerful cartridge than the .38s that came before it however, and had plenty of stretch for development.

The new revolvers were heat-treated for smokeless powder pressures and that is where things became interesting. There was a lot of development with the new powders. New bullet designs from Ideal, Lyman and others were developed. Many of these bullet designs are still useful today. The full wadcutter was developed to give the .38 target grade accuracy. With a full driving band that met the bore tightly, the 148-grain wadcutter bullet showed excellent balance. Usually loaded to about 750 fps, this is still among the finest target loads ever designed. When coupled with a target-sighted revolver, accuracy is excellent to 50 yards or more.

Let’s Move Forward to Today

Today manufacturers load a 148-grain wadcutter that is highly sought after by target shooters and small-game hunters alike. The full caliber profile was designed to cut a nice hole in the target and it does the same on edible game. Other manufacturers and handloaders went the other route and developed heavier bullets up to 200 grains for the .38 Special. Among the most useful was the 173-grain SWC. Later, most shooters settled upon a 158- to 160-grain SWC.

The semi-wadcutter design is kind of like a wadcutter with a nose on it. The semi-wadcutter features long driving bands for accuracy. The full shoulder and blunt nose produce a cutting effect far superior to the round nose bullet. Coupled with a higher velocity, the SWC design made the .38 far more effective. A softer casting with a hollow point bullet is particularly effective and is still a fine defense loading. Experiments with the .38 Special and this bullet and new powders—and the heavy frame Smith & Wesson .38/44 revolver—resulted in a loading that jolted a 160-grain SWC to a full 1200 fps. The .38 took on a new life as an outdoorsman’s revolver. The new Buffalo Bore Outdoorsman load duplicates this loading. For heavy frame .38s and the .357 Magnum, this is a very accurate loading.

The .38 Special is a great sub loading for the .357 Magnum. The .38 Special introduced the concept of different levels of power in the same caliber. While there were gallery loads of various types during the formative years of centerfire cartridges, for the most part the .38 Colt. .44-40 and .45 Colt were offered in the same loading from the different makers. Also, the .38 Special was among the first of the universally adopted calibers. A generation before it was the .44 Remington, .44 Colt and .44-40 Winchester—all distinct cartridges—and .38 Smith & Wesson and .38 Colt.

The .38 Special was so popular every maker had to chamber its handguns for it. The standard loading was a general-purpose load not good for much but the 148-grain wadcutter was a great target load. The heavy handloads with SWC bullets were fine field loads and good defense loads. The manufacturers eventually gave us the .38/44, an early +P loading. Most of these loads jolted the 158-grain bullet to about 1125 fps.

The .38 Special is as powerful as the occasional shooter can master. For those with little time to devote to training and practice the .38 Special is a reasonable choice for personal defense. The quest for more power resulted in lengthening the .38 Special cartridge case by 1/10-inch and creating the .357 Magnum cartridge. The Magnum is a great cartridge, no doubt about it and is more than many of us wish to tackle in lightweight revolvers.

The .357 Magnum seemed to eclipse the .38 Special, and that is a shame. The .38 isn’t a weak cartridge by any means. It is a high-power revolver cartridge with much to recommend it. Quite a few shooters found that by following the recommendations of the late Bill Jordan and practicing with the .357 Magnum with a steady diet of five to 10 .38s for every Magnum, the revolver and the shooter last much longer. Today most .38 Special revolvers sold are two-inch barrel versions.

The ammunition makers have tailored their defensive loads to this market. This means that most of the personal defense ammunition in .38 Special will demonstrate a full powder burn in these short barrels. As an example, the Cor-Bon 110-grain hollow point breaks over 1000 fps in a two-inch barrel, penetrates about 12 inches in water and expands to a plump .64-inch.

That is impressive.

If you deploy a four-inch barrel revolver, the heavy 158-grain Buffalo Bore lead hollow point breaks well over 1,000 fps and expands well. Load selection is important, and if you are using a short barrel revolver, recoil comes into play—particularly if you are using an alloy frame design. Lead bullets are not recommended for aluminum or scandium frame revolvers. The heavy recoil might cause the lead bullet to jump its crimp and tie the rotation of the cylinder up. Use a modern JHP in these revolvers. When all is said and done the .38 Special is still very special and a useful cartridge.

Author’s Note:  The .38 responds well to a careful handloader. This is a well-balanced cartridge, the straight-walled case is easy to work with and the .38 may be reloaded for a pittance. A combination of cast lead bullets, fast-burning powder and the Hornady press will give the handloader many hours of shooting on a tight budget.

What are your thoughts about the .38 Special? Share them with us in the comment section.


About the Author:

Bob Campbell

Bob Campbell’s primary qualification is a lifelong love of firearms, writing, and scholarship. He holds a degree in Criminal Justice but is an autodidact in matters important to his readers. Campbell considers unarmed skills the first line of defense and the handgun the last resort. (He gets it honest- his uncle Jerry Campbell is in the Boxer’s Hall of Fame.)

Campbell has authored well over 6,000 articles columns and reviews and fourteen books for major publishers including Gun Digest, Skyhorse and Paladin Press. Campbell served as a peace officer and security professional and has made hundreds of arrests and been injured on the job more than once.

He has written curriculum on the university level, served as a lead missionary, and is desperately in love with Joyce. He is training his grandchildren not to be snowflakes. At an age when many are thinking of retirement, Bob is working a 60-hour week and awaits being taken up in a whirlwind many years in the future.

Published in
Black Belt Magazine
Combat Handguns
Rifle Magazine
Gun Digest
Gun World
Tactical World
SWAT Magazine
American Gunsmith
Gun Tests Magazine
Women and Guns
The Journal Voice of American Law Enforcement
Police Magazine
Law Enforcement Technology
The Firearms Instructor
Tactical World
Concealed Carry Magazine
Concealed Carry Handguns

Books published

Holsters for Combat and Concealed Carry
The 1911 Automatic Pistol
The Handgun in Personal Defense
The Illustrated Guide to Handgun Skills
The Hunter and the Hunted
The Gun Digest Book of Personal Defense
The Gun Digest Book of the 1911
The Gun Digest Book of the 1911 second edition
Dealing with the Great Ammunition Shortage
Commando Gunsmithing
The Ultimate Book of Gunfighting
Preppers Guide to Rifles
Preppers Guide to Shotguns
The Accurate Handgun
The Mission of Cheaper Than Dirt!'s blog, The Shooter's Log, is to provide information—not opinions—to our customers and the shooting community. We want you, our readers, to be able to make informed decisions. The information provided here does not represent the views of Cheaper Than Dirt!

Comments (16)

  1. Consider that the M1 Carbine got a bad reputation for lack of stopping power, why? Because it was compared to ther M! garand firing a full sized 30:06 rifle cartridge! I feel it is a similar situation with te 38. special. What are wwe comparing it to? In most people’s mid’s they compare it to the .357 Magnum !

    Of course 30:06 has better stopping power than 110 grain M1 Carbine, but which is easier to score instant hits in the kill zone with? Which handles and points quicker ? The M1 Carbine with HP loads performs better than .357 magnum from 4 in BBl in 10% gelatin and on bad guys too.

    The .36 in an HP and +P load will very likely stop the bad guys. And 2″bbl in ,357 Magnum won’t do any better from a 2 inch bbl revolver.(because the ,357 can’t develop it’s velocity in so short bbl)

    Ultimately it is how you train to handle the adrenal dump of combat that is more important by far than the caliber of your weapon.

  2. I think you way under estimate the stopping power of this test and proven caliber, Let’s face it ,it made for short range and quick response, it will do in a pinch , it falls in the neighborhood of the LCP. .380 as far as defense goes. I like the price, agreed it does look pretty as the Smith, but who’s counting pretty when you need to stop bad guys. P.W.D. U.S.Army Infantry Retied. (Hey carry a cannon if you must but this is quick and easy rolled out and on target,. and yes I own a,44 mag and love that power, but as I aged I find less recoil with advance tech on impact makes me like it.)

  3. I reloaded Hornady 158-grain lead bullets for my Smith and Wesson Model 15 .38 Combat Masterpiece and got better than 90 percent hits on a military human torso target at 100 yards and better than 80 percent at 200 yards. At the time I was an Army 71Q (Information Specialist Journalist) assigned to HQ 8th Infantry Division in Bad Kreuznach, Germany (Jan 1980 to May 1983). The Cold War was still very much a concern and I was not issued a weapon because of my job (Military Occupational Specialty). Whenever we alerted I packed my .38 in a shoulder rig underneath my Army field jacket. I was not about to face a Russian soldier with nothing more than a camera and tape recorder. I had every intention of blasting one of the Russians up close and grabbing his AK-47. Fortunately, I never had to do that. I still have the Smith and Wesson. It helps protect my home just as well as it would have helped protect me in combat 35 years ago.

  4. My carry handgun is a .38 Special, a Rock Island Armory Model 206 two inch barrel with a six shot cylinder. I favor the 158 grain SWC round.It’s accurate in my weapon and the terminal ballistics are proven,Plus it’s a standard pressure load that will not tax the revolver a great deal. Recoil is negligible, and the weapon has that old Colt Detective Special vibe that pleases my inner Humphrey Bogart.

  5. Doc Holliday far predates the advent of the .38 Special. He would likely have had a Peacemaker in .44-40, .38-40, .45LC or .32-20. History remembers him most for his use of a side by side hammer gun at the OK Corra fracasl.

  6. Does anybody know if the 38 was Doc Holiday’s favorite next to the Derringer and knife he carried? I seem to recall reading that some years ago. Hank

  7. I carry a S&W 642 Airweight loaded with Hornady Critical Defense 110 grain 38 +p. I practice with whatever is the cheapest, mostly reloads from a local shop. I have to shoot a lot of rounds fairly regular like to stay proficient with the little sucker, but it sure is an easy carry. American Express!

  8. My experience enjoying cowboy action shooting w/ 1000s of .38 Special as well as target & small game home defense use made me try 100s of bullet/powder combinations which is fun to try all of them out. Try 140 gr truncated cone cast bullet over 4 gr HP38 if you want easy to feed & accurate out both pistol & lever action rifles. My grandkids & wife all agree the 38 lever action rifle is the most fun – quiet accurate & hits hard.

  9. I have, and occasionally carry, the S&W Model 12 Airweight that my Grandfather carried during his time with the FBI. With it filled with FBI HPSWC loads, I don’t at all feel undergunned with this combination as an alternative to my 1911.

  10. Corbon is nice, if you are made out of solid gold. I’m oldschool, and also very, very cheap. 158 SWC are damn effective, were good enough for law enforcement, are excellent practice rounds, and are dirt cheap. CorBon is nice, but who can afford to shoot it enough to become comfortable with it? Even some LO agencies that issue good hollow points to their officers for duty still have them train with FMJ cheapos, a dangerous deal, when you should be practicing with the round you will use in self defense or law enforcement. The old, dumb, solid lead SWC are not only good, but cheap and available enough to be your standard practice and carry round.

    .38 snubs are probably the best choice in conceal carry, and have been one of the most popular choices for that purpose. Improved bullets are a great choice to make up for the lost velocity of the smaller barrels, and even more necessary for those who shoot regular pressure instead of +p. But for those who choose the old standard .38’s, 4 inch barrel revolvers like the venerable Model 10 S&W, +p and heavier bullets are controllable, giving you more, and better, alternatives.

    What makes the old Model 10 and the old SWC +p rounds such a great combination is, as I stated earlier and uselessly repeating, a cheap and effective combination. One can use an exceptional 4 inch barrel revolver, and cheap lead bullets, to create a very accurate target pistol, a cheap training pistol, and an effective self defense pistol, all in one cheap little package. Sometimes, all the money and extra technology you put out can barely beat out a pistol, and a bullet, that was perfected a long time ago.

  11. Hank, The RCBS dies (as I’m sure you know) will load .357 and .38. Save your .357 cases as well since you can load them to .38 specs. My concern when reloading was to make sure I don’t accidently load a .38 case to .357 specs. Too keep myself from making that mistake I mark the .38 cases with a black marker. Also, the longer, straight walled cases of the .38 and .357 will tend to fold up more when resizing as compared to a .45 ACP. I liked to use 2400 as a powder when reloading .357s. Nice fireball at dusk, but its better with jacketed bullets than lead due to the high speeds you’re going to get.

  12. I’m asking, not commenting. We bought a Taurus 38 special/357 magnum revolver with a six inch barrel and even with the rubber Hogue grips the 357 magnums aren’t much fun to shoot with my arthritis. I bought the RCBS dies to reload the 38 special’s cases we’ve kept so I’m asking is there anything in particular to look out for? I’ve been reloading 45 ACP’s with my Rock Chucker and they’re pretty much straight forward. Is there anything about reloading the 38 specials I should be aware of that isn’t in the book? Hank

    1. Hank: I shoot .38 and 357 exclusively. I think you will prefer Lee carbide dies,and TiteGroup or Clays powders under a 125 gr.coated lead bullets from SNS casting and some small pistol primers from CCI,Winchester orSelliot and Belloit available at Cabelas. Cast lead 158 grain Swcs work well too. Happy shooting.

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