Heavyweight Bullet Choices for Personal Defense

one gallon water jug exploding after being shot with a gun

There is only one reason to fire at another human being, and that is to stop a threat. The threat must be so great that the only means of stopping violent action is to fire. It must not matter morally or legally if the individual dies as a result of being shot. Personal defense is a serious business that demands care in choosing the handgun and its ammunition.

Winchester PDX bullets personal defense
Winchester’s PDX loads are highly developed personal defense choices.

It may be debated which is more important. The handgun is simply a projectile launcher in some ways, but in other ways, it is important to choose a proper handgun. Ammunition selection is also important. Although caliber selection is downplayed by some, erroneously, I believe, with good shot placement calibers beginning with the 9mm and .38 Special may be effective.

The single most important criteria of wound potential is penetration. When a small caliber performs beyond expectation it is because it penetrated well. When a big bore fails, it is usually because of poor penetration. I am very careful concerning a recommendation. The following observations are valid, I believe, and the loads examined are reliable and offer good performance for personal defense.

The Problem of Wound Potential

When an expanded .45 enters the arterial region, all events are canceled. Given adequate penetration, a blunt nose that causes damage to tissue and blood loss, many calibers and ammunition combinations have the potential to perform in a similar manner. The desired result is a shutdown of the threat as quickly as possible.

125-, 158- and 180-grain Hornady XTP
These are 125-, 158- and 180-grain Hornady XTP bullets. They offer excellent performance.

Historically, larger calibers are more effective than small calibers. Many of these large bore handguns also use heavier bullets. I believe, in most cases, the heavy-for-the-caliber bullet is a good choice. While lighter bullets may be driven at a higher velocity, this isn’t always desirable.

Energy favors velocity, but momentum favors weight. Bullet expansion is also desirable but never at the cost of penetration. A felon may be heavily clothed, as in heavy winter clothing. Our protein fed ex-con criminal class may be heavily muscled and they may be large heavy individuals.

Bone is hard and not easily penetrated. A round-nosed bullet may bounce off bone. Even the best-designed hollow point bullets may close up on striking bone or plug with material and fail to expand.

The single most important function of wound potential (when it comes to personal defense) is shot placement. Next comes penetration. While heavy-for-the-caliber bullets may be slower in comparison, most achieve well over 1,000 fps. This is sufficient to instigate expansion with modern designs such as the Hornady XTP and Speer Gold Dot.

Buffalo Bore .38 Special
Buffalo Bore offers excellent heavy bullet loads in many calibers.

A balance of expansion and penetration is needed, with 12 inches a realistic minimum for personal defense. You must look at the total wound value. A rapidly-expanding bullet may produce a shallow, but wide, wound while a deep penetrating bullet that expands to an extent will produce a larger total wound along its path. This means greater wound damage and greater blood loss.

Personal Defense Heavyweight Caliber Choices

Calibers below .38 Special and 9mm Luger do not have sufficient power to achieve both penetration and expansion. If you bet your life on a small bore, then it isn’t an even bet at all. The 9mm and .38 Special are realistic minimum calibers for personal defense.

.38 Special

The original .38 Special loading was a 158-grain RNL bullet at 750 fps. This is no powerhouse. The RNL bullet simply pushed flesh aside rather than cutting. There are plenty of records concerning this load. Performance leaves much to be desired earning the title widow maker in police service.

one gallon water jug exploding after being shot with a gun
Water testing is viable for comparing ammunition.

Most attempts at improving the .38 Special revolved around changing the bullet shape to produce a more complex wound. By dropping bullet weight to 110 to 125 grains, the .38 Special could obtain a velocity over 1,000 fps. This was thought necessary for bullet expansion. Sometimes these bullets under penetrate. The use of a soft lead hollow point allows expansion at lower velocity with a full weight 158-grain lead hollow point. Bullet technology also allows good bullet expansion at less than 1,000 fps with jacketed bullets of good design.

.38 Special Load Choices

If you are using a K frame revolver or a .357 Magnum revolver, among the best choices available is the Buffalo Bore 158-grain LSWCHP. This load offers good expansion and excellent penetration. Recoil is stout, as the load breaks 980 fps in a two-inch barrel, but the result is getting the tired old .38 Special off of its knees. In four-inch barrel revolvers, velocity may be as much as 1,050 fps. The soft lead bullet isn’t jacketed allowing good upset at modest velocity.

Gold Dot Technology

The Speer Gold Dot isn’t a lightweight but at 135 grains it is lighter than some. This load breaks over 900 fps in a snub nose revolver. This is impressive. Recoil is manageable, and the Gold Dot expands well in testing. This is a consistently expanding load that is among the best loads available for snub nose revolvers.

three upset bullets
Expansion is an important part of wound potential when it comes to personal defense.

9mm Luger

I have tested more 9mm loads than other calibers because the 9mm is everyone’s cartridge and makes a giant footprint in the market. This is a powerful number with good performance—in the right loading. The 9mm has posted dismal results with non-expanding loads. Sometimes, lightweight bullets under penetrate. We train not for the average event but for the worst-case scenario. The 147-grain load provides a balance of expansion and penetration that favors penetration.

The 135-grain weight is a fairly new weight choice in 9mm with much promise. The FBI recently adopted Hornady’s 135-grain Critical Duty. This is a loading with an ideal balance of penetration and expansion that meets or exceeds all FBI Standards.

Speer Gold Dot 147-grain

Speer’s 147-grain Gold Dot is an accurate loading that has functioned well in all 9mm handguns I have tested. Expansion is greater than most 147-grain loads. The Gold Dot offers excellent barrier penetration. A good point of the Gold Dot is first class accuracy potential. This loading breaks 980 fps from the Glock 45 and 940 fps from the Mossberg MC1.

Winchester 147-grain PDX

At 940 fps, this load is controllable and accurate. Penetration is good and while expansion is modest the load demonstrates good load integrity with little unburned powder. Penetration is long and expansion is .46.

When all is said and done, heavyweight bullets have much appeal.

Federal 147-grain HST

Also available in a +P version with a 50 fps supercharge, the HST offers greater expansion than other 147-grain loads. Penetration is good at over 1,000 fps. This load is a fast loading. For those who decry modest expansion in a 147-grain 9mm, the HST is an answer.

Federal 135-grain Hydra-Shok Deep Penetrating

This load features a balance of expansion and penetration that favors penetration. The bullet expands well and offers good penetration. Expansion is, on average, greater than the 147-grain loads while giving up little in terms of penetration.

Hornady 135-grain Critical Duty

The choice of the FBI, the 1,050 fps Hornady load is controllable, even docile, to fire. Performance is excellent across the board in all respects. At 1,060 to 1,080 fps in the test handguns, this load is controllable. Barrier penetration is predictably excellent all around. There is no more heavily tested 9mm load in history.

Fiocchi 147-grain JHP

I have often used this loading as a practice load for any 9mm that deploys the 147-grain JHP. The Fiocchi loading is high quality, accurate, and affordable. Fifty-round boxes are little more expensive than most 20 round 9mm JHP boxes. The Fiocchi load breaks about 940 fps average in a wide range of handguns. Penetration is in line with most 147-grain loads and expansion .46 on average. There are other loads including the Remington 147-grain Golden Saber and Double Tap 147-grain JHP that offer promise.

250-grain Hornady XTP bullet
This 250-grain XTP .45 hit the water at only 750 fps. Yet, there is some expansion and penetration was 42 inches of water.

Double Tap 165-grain 9mm — King of the Heavies

Double Tap offers a heavy 9mm with a 115-grain JHP loaded over a 50-grain round nose lead bullet. This load depends on the principle of multiple hits causing more damage and shutting the body down. At modest velocity—965 fps—the 115-grain JHP expands less than fast stepping loads and the 50-grain ball trails behind. This is a load worth considering for personal defense.

.357 Magnum

Much of the research in .357 Magnum personal defense loads revolved around 110- to 125-grain loads. There are issues with bullet pull and firearms wear, but these loads—especially the 125-grain loads—offer proven wound potential. Just the same, I prefer heavier bullets for most chores.

Muzzle blast and even recoil are less with the heavier bullets, in my opinion, and they offer an excellent balance of expansion and penetration. Take a hard look at these loads. While velocity was clocked from a four-inch barrel revolver, those using a six-inch barrel revolver will find ever-greater performance. As an example, the six-inch barrel Model 19 clocked over 1,300 fps with the 158-grain Winchester Ammunition loading.

Hornady Critical Duty

I was surprised Hornady offered a duty load in .357 Magnum at this stage of the game with practically all service weapons these days being self-loaders. This is a modified version of the 9mm service bullet with a tougher construction for magnum velocity. The Critical Duty relies on a polymer plug to instigate expansion. This load is as fast as most 125-grain loads at 1,405 fps. Yet, it offers a full 18 inches of penetration and good expansion. Accuracy is excellent.

Speer Gold Dot ammunition box
Speer Gold Dot loads offer excellent choices.

Winchester Silvertip

This is among my favorite loads in any caliber. The 145-grain Silvertip is what the magnum is about, in my opinion, with 1,290 fps and excellent momentum and penetration. Considering flash, blast, recoil, accuracy, and overall performance, I prefer this load to the 125-grain JHP. It is also among the most accurate .357 Magnum loads I have tested.

Federal 180-grain JHP

This is the heaviest bullet tested in .357 Magnum. Velocity is 1,060 fps in the four-inch barrel L frame revolver and a strong 1,171 fps in the six-inch barrel Model 19. Before you write the Federal 180-grain load off as over penetrative, take a look at the chart and its expansion. If you have seen what this load does to a deer, your opinion may change.

.40 Smith and Wesson

The .40 S&W arguably needs less help than most calibers. .40 loads were designed from the beginning for penetration against barriers. The .40 was also the first cartridge designed specifically for JHP bullets. 180-grain JHP loads offer a good balance of expansion and penetration with gelatin penetration running 18-20 inches and expansion .68 to .72 inch.

expanded Winchester 125-grain Silvertip bullet
This is an expanded Winchester 125-grain Silvertip.

The Hornady 180-grain XTP is a standout. Accuracy is good, and the load is viable for defense against felons behind cover or even for animal defense. The Winchester 180-grain PDX is comparable.


The 10mm was originally introduced with a 200-grain bullet. Today, there are loads from 135 to 200 grains. I think the 200-grain bullet is the best choice for a full power 10mm.

The Speer 200-grain Gold Dot was introduced recently, and this loading demonstrates excellent penetration at over 20 inches and good expansion. The Gold Dot breaks 1,180 fps in the SIG 10mm. I prefer this bullet weight to the 155- and 180-grain loads. The Gold Dot load gets into desirable territory not only for personal and home defense and defense against feral animals.

.45 ACP

Some years ago, I read a professional report that calculated hit probability of major police weapons including .38 and .357 revolvers and the 9mm and .45 ACP handgun. This report also stressed the superiority of the 230-grain .45. Many of the loads available today were not available then, but just the same, I feel that the 230-grain JHP offer the best choice for the .45 ACP in all barrel lengths.

Federal 124-grain HST, left. Winchester 147-grain Defender, right
The Federal 124-grain HST, left, expanded well in testing. The Winchester 147-grain Defender, right, drives deeper. You pay your money and you make your choice.

Among the best choices is the Federal 230-grain HST. This load offers a good balance of expansion and penetration. The 230-grain weight is the weight originally intended for the .45 ACP and it functions well in all handguns. Hornady offers a 230-grain +P version at over 900 fps. Recoil becomes a factor with the +P load but it is a viable option in steel frame handguns.

Remington Black Belt

This loading is an improvement over an already outstanding design. The Golden Saber is the basis for the present Black Belt. The design uses the jacket, a brass covering, for expansion, which is different than most projectiles.

The Black Belt aids in gripping the barrel for accuracy. This is an accurate load with a good balance of expansion and penetration.

Two Remington Black Belt green and yellow ammunition boxes
Remington has a winner with the Black Belt loads.

Hornady 220-grain Critical Duty

In this case, Hornady dropped the traditional bullet weight a reasonable 10 grains to increase standard .45 ACP velocity from 850 to 1,000 fps. The result is a loading with plenty of power and penetration, good expansion, and modest recoil. This is arguably one of the best service loads available for personal defense.

Take a hard look at heavy for the caliber bullets. Some are standard bullet weights others are heavier than standard, and all offer viable performance.

Average Penetration and Expansion In Water Media





.38 Special
Buffalo Bore 158-grain LSWCHP 983 fps 16 in. .58
Speer 135-grain Gold Dot 905 fps 13 in. .62
Speer 147-grain Gold Dot 970 fps 20 in. .68
Federal 147-grain HST 1,006 fps 22 in. .68
Federal 135-grain DP 1,035 fps 22 in. .79
Fiocchi 147-grain JHP 952 fps 24 in. .46
Hornady 135-grain Critical Duty 1,050 fps 24 in. .49
Winchester 147-grain JHP 940 fps 23 in. .54
Double Tap 147-grain JHP 1,120 fps 22 in. .55
Double Tap 165-grain Equalizer 965 fps 23 in. .54
Ball penetrated 16-18 inches average
.357 Magnum
Hornady 135-grain Critical Duty 1,400 fps 18 in. .62
Winchester 158-grain JHP 1,180 fps 18 in. .68
Winchester 145-grain Silvertip 1,290 fps 16 in. .70
Federal 180-grain JHP 1,099 fps 19 in. .72
.40 S&W
Hornady 180-grain XTP 980 fps 20 in. .70
Remington 180-grain Golden Saber 968 fps 15.0 .65
Winchester 180-grain PDX 980 fps 16.0 .68
Speer 200-grain Gold Dot R1,180 fps 24 .66
CCI Blazer 180-grain 1,050 fps 20 in. 60
.45 ACP
Hornady 230-grain XTP +P 909 fps 16.0 .70
Remington 230-grain Black Belt 845 fps 20 in. .68 in.
Hornady 220-grain Critical Duty 970 fps 14 in. 71 in.

Note: Gelatin results will usually be about 10 percent less in penetration compared to water testing.

What’s your favorite heavyweight ammunition choice for personal defense? Share your answer in the comment section.

About the Author:

Wilburn Roberts

When Wilburn Roberts was a young peace officer, he adopted his present pen name at the suggestion of his chief, as some of the brass was leery of what he might write. This was also adopted out of respect for families of both victims and criminals. The pen name is the same and the man remains an outspoken proponent of using enough gun for the job.

He has been on the hit list of a well-known hate group, traveled in a dozen countries and written on many subjects, including investigating hate crimes and adopting the patrol carbine. He graduated second in his class with a degree in Police Science. It took him 20 years to work himself from Lieutenant to Sergeant and he calls it as he sees it.
The Mission of Cheaper Than Dirt!'s blog, The Shooter's Log, is to provide information—not opinions—to our customers and the shooting community. We want you, our readers, to be able to make informed decisions. The information provided here does not represent the views of Cheaper Than Dirt!

Comments (7)

  1. Energy = Mass X Velocity squared. Obviously then energy is most impacted by velocity. That said there is a point where it is of little value when a bullet goes through its intended target. Thats where larger caliber bullets have an advantage. Less is more in some cases.

  2. I love how you argue against yourself in this article. You acknowledge velocity equals energy, but then say it’s less important than momentum. You also acknowledge that penetration is important, but come at it backwards. A sharp stick penetrates better than a heavy rock. Take a look at modern ammo like liberty civil defense, it penetrates. It penetrates IIIA armor, yet is much lighter than anything else it there.

    I am getting tired of seeing these opinions arguing for larger caliber. If larger caliber were better, people would not use 5.56mm NATO for home defense. It’s a tiny round. It’s devastating because it’s going fast.

    The fact is that modern high velocity rounds possess superior wound potential (because of energy) to old style heavy slow hollow points. They generally also have far less recoil which is more appropriate for most folks.

    For all you guys out there still dead set on larger caliber because you want a larger wound channel, at least get the best of both worlds and opt for something high energy as well. I do.

  3. I enjoyed this article very much and found it singularly informative.
    I am a dedicated 10 mm fan and wish that expansion was better in the round. Are there 10 mm rounds you know of that expand to a larger diameter?
    I generally carry either Buffalo Bore or Double Tap in my EDC — a Glock 29 carrying Glock 20 magazines. Yes, admittedly it is short barrel but almost nothing is perfect. It rides in the front pocket of my jeans almost all the time.
    By the way, for me, a simple solution to the slippery Glock plastics/polymers is the stretchy brown medical tape. Two wraps provide me with ample gripping surface without increasing the girth of the grip unduly. It is cheap and readily renewable when it gets dirty or loses its slightly sticky texture. After a while, it attracts pocket lint, but not very quickly. It doesn’t ever chafe the skin of my hand but is excellent to grip. It can be trimmed for a precise fit and adheres to itself.
    I have never shot anyone and hope that will always be the case. However, if compelled to shot to save my life or that of a loved one, I do not want there to be any doubt about the result. Until the 10 mm came along, I always carried a .45 ACP in 1911 configuration. It was always loaded with the 230-grain slug and I handloaded to between 900 and 950 fps.

  4. I like corbon dpx, DRT, and a few others that are made to do what these rounds where intended to do. Not just penetrating clothing and what not but also glass and metal, there good rounds have excellent expansion and enuff of all the right stuff to do what is needed to be done. Although somewhat expensive for a box of 20 I believe the safety of my family and I are worth the money anyway anytime, thank you. Do u think maybe u could do an article testing some of these types of rounds, I’m sure there are a lot of people out there that are not aware that they even exist. Thanks again, stay safe, help others, and god bless.

  5. Only real surprise for me was the 9mm Fiocchi 147. Sounds like it might be worth giving a try for Range Ammo.

  6. Good article. Since I am more likely to engage a 4-legged predator than one with 2 legs I have always been a fan of big, heavy bullets. Lately my opinion has been evolving and I have started carrying Underwood Ammo loaded with Lehigh Defense machined copper fluted bullets. These are truly barrier blind and do not rely on expansion to inflict maximum trauma. Rather, the flutes on these fast moving projectiles transfer fluid energy due to bullet rotation while penetrating tissue and cause unexpectedly large wound channels when tested in gelatin. Their Xtreme Defense line is made to penetrate 16-18″ and the Xtreme Penetrator made to penetrate to infinity and beyond. The main difference is the shape of the flutes. I live in the mountains of north Idaho and pack a Ruger GP-100 Wiley Clapp model with a 3″ barrel because it is the best combination of power and size I have found. I used to load it with Beartooth Bullets cast lead flat nose 185gr. bullets at around 1000fps but now I carry the Underwood 140gr. Xtreme Penetrator load with a claimed velocity of 1550 fps. I need to chrono these in the 3″ barrel. Regardless, this sold copper projectile WILL penetrate and I suspect it will make a mess of whatever I hit with it.

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