The .45 ACP is my favorite handgun cartridge. I have to get that out of the way before I begin. Just the same, I have an open eye and mind, and I am not blind to other developments.
The .45 ACP was developed to offer a reasonable substitute for the .45 Colt, save in a self-loading action.
The .45 Colt had been designed to give troopers a fighting chance and to drop an Indian war pony at 100 yards.
The cavalry was an immensely important and influential department of the Army when the 1911 and the .45 ACP cartridge were being developed.
The .45 ACP was actually developed much earlier and chambered in the 1905 Colt. Standard performance was a 230-grain FMJ bullet at 830 fps.
The Colt soon earned an excellent reputation for stopping dedicated adversaries.
The .45 ACP wasn’t designed for civilian personal defense in the beginning, but for use against warhorses and hardened fighting men, it did the job well.
Interestingly, among the original requirements was that the cartridge be useful against dangerous animals such as Jaguars.
The Army had serious problems with bears and wolves as they moved out west, and many of the early rimfire and .44 cartridges were very weak.
The .45 Colt, and later the .45 ACP, offered real power without excess recoil.
A great deal of development went into increasing accuracy potential in the time between the World Wars, eventually giving us superbly accurate handguns.
Ammunition development stalled at times. Some of the hollow points introduced in the 1970s would feed or they would expand, but not both.
Today, we have well-designed bullets that offer excellent feed reliability, even feeding in old GI guns for the most part.
A modern bullet with a good balance of expansion and penetration considerably increases the wound potential of the .45 ACP cartridge.
Let’s look at five good loads because best is a relative term. Some loads are best for one purpose or the other, but the loads that I trust and carry in my personal firearms are general-purpose loads.
They are useful for the worst-case scenario and accurate enough for any chore.
While there are differences in the performance of these loads, be certain that the difference in shot placement would count for more than the differences in expansion and penetration.
As it turned out, these loads are similar in general performance. There is a consensus on what is needed in a personal-defense cartridge, based largely on FBI testing.
These loads are among the best I have tested in some time.
1. Speer G2 230-Grain Gold Dot +P
The Gold Dot is among the most proven personal defense and service loads in history. Speer recently improved this formidable loading.
The new design features a hollow-point cavity filled with an elastomer. The new bullet also features reinforcing ribs for the petals.
There is no longer a Gold Dot at the bottom of the cavity, but the bullet is space age.
The elastomer is designed to prevent the bullet from being plugged with clothing or intermediate material and failing to expand.
I tested expansion and penetration using water jugs. Sure it isn’t gelatin, but it gives a good comparison between loads.
The jugs are six-inches wide so penetration is easily measured, and the bullet penetration was tagged at the spot in the water jug it came to rest.
The Gold Dot Generation 2 penetrated 18 inches and expanded from .79 to .81 inch. This is ideal performance.
I would be hesitant to use the load in a lightweight frame or Officers Model, as there is greater recoil. A standard Gold Dot loading may be preferred at about 840 fps in a Commander-size pistol.
For those wishing to maximize the .45 ACP, this is a great load.
2. Hornady 220-Grain +P Critical Duty
This is another +P load. Don’t worry, the steel-frame 1911 will take it. I fired a five-shot 25-yard group for accuracy in the Les Baer 572 Hemi.
The result was a 1.25-inch group for the best results, and a 1.65-inch average for three.
This wasn’t an accuracy contest, all of the loads are accurate enough for personal defense, but that is impressive precision.
By dropping the standard weight slightly to 220-grains, Hornady has managed to combine standard recoil with high velocity.
The average from a five-inch barrel is 1040 fps. Penetration is 16 inches and expansion .70 inch. The leading water jugs were blown off the table.
3. Winchester 230-Grain JHP
This is a general-purpose defense loading available in 50-round boxes. It is affordable, reliable and accurate enough for most uses.
A standard-velocity loading is useful in short-barrel or full-size handguns. This load was also tested in the GLOCK 21 with good results.
The Winchester load is no slouch for a non +P, clocking a solid 855 to 866 fps in full-size handguns.
With 18 inches of penetration, this loading expands to a consistent .70 inch.
4. Fiocchi 230-Grain Extrema
There are two Fiocchi loadings, one a 900 fps XTP loading and the Extrema at 840 fps. This load offers modest recoil in comparison to a +P, and has excellent accuracy.
Fiocchi features high cartridge integrity. The 230-grain Extrema breaks 840 fps in most pistols, 855 fps in the GLOCK 21.
Penetration is 20 inches and expansion .68 inch. The 900 fps load, in comparison, averages 18 inches of penetration and .72 inch expansion.
I prefer the standard-velocity load when all is considered, and this one gets the slot among the top five loads.
5. Remington Black Belt 185-Grain
I wanted to test at least one 185-grain loading. The Remington Black Belt is based on the Golden Saber, a proven design.
The Golden Saber uses the expansion of the bullet jacket as a wounding mechanism.
The Black Belt design features a driving band on the base of the bullet to increase accuracy, and a band in the bullet to prevent fragmentation.
This loading breaks 1003 fps in a five-inch gun and 976 fps in the Commander. This bullet penetrates 16 to 18 inches and expands to .73 inch.
Felt recoil is modest. As a defense load, particularly in lighter-weight .45s, this is a good choice.
.45 ACP Loads: Conclusion
The .45 ACP has been called the hammer of the century. The .45 is a good cartridge, but if you do not practice, build skills and use good tactics, no firearm will save you.
These loads are good choices and among the best modern loads.
What is your favorite .45 ACP defensive load? Why? Let us know in the comments section below!