This video was published on December 14, 2015, by The Wound Channel and shows the M855A1 round used as the U.S. Army’s primary battlefield cartridge being fired into clear ballistic gelatin. Impressive. For a round commissioned by the Army nearly six years ago, there’s still a lot about the load you may not know. Here are a few fun facts about the Army’s main battle cartridge, the M855A1 Enhanced Performance Round:
— In 2010, the United States Department of the Army began replacing the M855 with a new lead-free bullet, the M855A1 Enhanced Performance Round (EPR). We first mentioned the EPR in a blog post here. The rounds are frequently called “brown tips,” in contrast to the “green tips” of regular XM855. But the M855A1’s tip is actually bronze-colored — an anti-corrosive coating on its hardened steel penetrator.
— PJ Marx was the inventor of the projectile covered by a related patent (Patent No. 7,748,325, usually called the ’325 patent). Marx contacted individuals at the Department of Defense to share his design for a new, lead-free 5.56mm projectile after the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks. Marx first spoke with Army officials about the Enhanced Performance Incapacitative Composite (EPIC) round in 2004, and Marx filed a patent application on the EPIC round in 2005 and assigned the rights to Liberty Ammunition, a company he founded in 2005.
— After the government unveiled the M855A1 round, Liberty alleged in a lawsuit that through conversations with Mr. Marx, the Army was able to copy the design and give it to unauthorized recipients, including some who worked with vendors of ammunition to the Army.
A trial at the United States Court of Federal Claims was held in Washington, D.C., last year, commencing on June 23, 2014, and ending on July 8, 2014. The court found the government’s M855A1 ammunition design did infringe on Liberty’s patent. The presiding judge in the case, Charles F. Lettow, awarded $15,617,533.68 in damages to to Liberty Ammunition, which paid for the rounds the government had already made and supplied to soldiers. Also, Lettow awarded to Liberty a 1.4-cent-per-round royalty through October 20, 2027.
— The royalty should pay Liberty well. The Army and other military branches and agencies ordered more than 158 million of the M855A1 rounds in fiscal 2013, and Army budget documents from 2014 showed plans to purchase at least 65 million M855A1 rounds in fiscal 2015. Contractors for the rifle/machine gun ammunition include Orbital ATK’s Lake City Army Ammunition Plant in Independence, Missouri, and Olin Corporation’s facility in East Alton, Illinois.
— A primary reason for creating the M855A1, according to a June 2010 release from the Picatinny Arsenal in New Jersey, had nothing to do with performance in the field: “The M855A1 Enhanced Performance Round is the first environmentally-friendly bullet resulting from a larger ‘greening’ effort across the Army’s Small Caliber Ammunition programs. Other greening efforts include 5.56mm tracer, 7.62mm ball and green primers.”
The Army said, “The 5.56mm Ball, M855A1 Enhanced Performance Round (EPR) contains an environmentally friendly projectile that eliminates up to 2,000 tons of lead from the manufacturing process each year in direct support of Army commitment to environmental stewardship” — a fact many taxpayers may not have known was an issue in ammunition procurement.
— The EPR replaced the green-tipped 5.56x45mm NATO XM855 standard ball, the cartridge that raised such a ruckus last year because ATF was going to ban it for civilian use. No question, the M855 has its critics. The M855 incorporated a hardened steel penetrator; a lead slug; and a forward-drawn copper jacket, and had a weight of 62 grains when it became the standard NATO ammunition.
Post-combat reports and surveys in the 1990s said that some soldiers were reporting instances of through-and-through hits on enemy combatants who would return fire despite being struck by the standard ammunition. One such field report in fact said, “We had a[n] enemy that had been hit 14 times in the fatal zone and was still returning fire on us. . . . [A]fterwards when we checked his body, most of the shots went clean through him with minimal damage.”). These inconsistencies were a result of the M855 (and M80) being yaw-dependent, according to court documents in Liberty Ammunition’s lawsuit against the government.
“At a high angle of yaw, the projectile typically strikes a soft target without exiting the body. In doing so, the bullet transfers all of its energy within that target, which increases the severity of tissue damage and therefore, the likelihood of incapacitation. Conversely, at a low angle of yaw, the bullet may pass through a soft target. If it does not puncture a vital area, such as an organ, the through-and-through hit will only cause minimal damage because the projectile traverses the body without expending significant energy,” testimony from the case showed.
— Besides being “green,” the M855A1 is a better fighting round because it is less yaw-dependent. Also, the Army said in a release, “The M855A1 is tailored for use in the M-4 weapon system (Colt M4 Carbine and Colt M4A1 Carbine Short Barreled Rifle platforms) but also improves the performance of the M-16 assault rifle and M-249 (FN M249 Squad Automatic Weapon and Light Machine Gun) families of weapons. The M855A1 steel penetrator is effective against light armored targets while its three-piece construction maintains operational capabilities against unprotected personnel targets. The M855A1 enhances performance on hard targets or barriers, and contains an improved propellant that reduces flash.”
— However, the M855A1’s bullet has a copper core that is lighter than lead, so to add extra weight to get to its fighting weight of 62 grains, the bullet was made a little longer (about 1/8 inch), which requires it to be seated deeper in the casing, because the OAL of the cartridge still needs to mike out at 2.248 inches or it won’t fit in M4 magazines. Deeper seating in the casing can contribute to higher chamber pressures.
— Cheaper Than Dirt! does not list M855A1 for sale to the public. Liberty makes its National Defense 5.56x45mm Product Number T3(CS)-556×45 available only to military and law-enforcement buyers, according to the company’s website listing.
Liberty’s specifications for its National Defense 5.56x45mm round call it a “a copper/steel, 3-piece, armor-piercing, enhanced performance, lead-free round. Weight is 62 grains, and it produces 3,100 fps of muzzle velocity. Accuracy is claimed to be greater than 2 minutes of angle (MOA) @ 600 meters. Liberty says the ND 5.56mm will penetrate NATO steel, oblique glass, and level IIIA body armor, and an aluminum engine block, while fragmenting up to 9 pieces in soft tissue.
— If you get a chance to shoot some of the M855A1 through your agency, the new round is claimed to shoot flatter than the XM855. The M855A1 is listed as having a muzzle velocity of 3,100 fps compared to 3,025 for the M855. Accordingly, optics with displays made to coincide with the M855’s ballistics may be off. Also, the M855A1’s better penetration on steel may damage downrange target stands.
— The Office of the Project Manager for Maneuver Ammunition Systems at the Picatinny Arsenal produced a short list of items that “soldiers need to know when using this round:”
- Dramatically improves hard target performance
- Provides dependable, consistent effects against soft targets and CQB performance (no more ―Thru and Thrus‖)
- Significantly improves performance at extended ranges
- Match like accuracy
- No weight increase, flash reduced, increased velocity.
- [There’s] A noticeable gap below the penetrator ― spinning tips are normal, and do not impede performance in any way.”