Posts Tagged ‘Brown Bess’

Hunter vs. Soldier

What triggered the America revolution

What triggered the America revolution

Brown Bess .70 caliber bore

Brown Bess .75 caliber bore

It is popular to attribute the victory in the American Revolution to the citizen snipers armed with rifles. Historic reenactors are quick to point out that this isn’t so, but the popular perception of rifles as superior to smoothbores remains. The topic often comes up when people compare government enforcers with short-range submachine guns to hunters with longer-range weapons and good camouflage skills. Let’s look at the accuracy of that perception.

A typical British “Brown Bess” musket threw a 545-grain .69-caliber ball at 1000fps. Trained troops could fire three shots per minute. The cost of that ballistic splendor was limited number of shots carried (usually 24) and abysmal accuracy. Hitting a man-sized target beyond 50 yards was very unlikely. On the plus side, the gun had enormous stopping power due to the sheer size of the musket ball. Moreover, the main casualty-producing factor was usually the formidable bayonet.

Rifle bore

Rifle bore

Musket shot

Musket shot

The hardy frontier rifleman operates the weapons optimized for hunting rather than for close combat. Depending on the rifle, the caliber varied from .36 to .45, providing initial muzzle velocity of 1200-1300fps with ball as light as 65 grains and as heavy as 125 grains. For comparison, a single 000 buck pellet is as fast at the muzzle, weights about 70 grains and its lead has additives for improved hardness. The initially higher muzzle velocity dropped off considerably quicker with round ball ammunition than with modern conical bullets, so even the spin-stabilized .36 caliber rifle bullet had unimpressive terminal performance at extreme range. Depending on the skill of the shooter, the extreme range was from 100 to 200 yards. The trouble with the flintlock rifle was the slow rate of fire, a single shot every minute at best. Despite the lighter weight, rifles were also physically strenuous to shoot, as the soldier had to stuff the tight-fitting bullet down the rifled bore with arms raised high. Loading a musket was physically easier and quicker, but muskets had stronger recoil. The rifles of the American volunteers seldom had bayonet mounts, so they could fire one or two shots only before British regulars could walk up to them and retaliate with bayonets. The few occasions where rifles gave considerable advantage to the Americans were when the British infantry couldn’t reach their foes on foot and had to shoot it out from long range. Without artillery or the opportunity to deploy cavalry, they were at a disadvantage.


Flintlock ignition sequence

Flintlock ignition sequence

Anticipation of the upflash from the pan

Anticipation of the upflash from the pan

The main factor limiting the effectiveness of musket fire was not its inherent inaccuracy. One problem came from the vast amounts of gray smoke covering the battlefield. Another, more serious issue was the nature of the flintlock ignition. After the trigger pull, the shooter had to wait up to 1/15 of a second for the priming charge to ignite the main main powder charge. In that time, burning powder grains and hot fragments of flint and frizzen sparks flew dangerously close to the shooter’s eyes. No wonder most soldiers preferred to turn away from this hazard!

Flintlocks have a high rate of misfires under the best conditions. In wet weather, the bayonet becomes a more reliable tool than the firelock. Therefore, while a single hunter armed with a long-range rifle can successfully ambush a single regular with either a musket or a submachine gun, a trained small unit can usually maneuver by fire and get the civilian defenders in range for automatic fire, grenades, or bayonets. When getting close is impossible, artillery often does the trick. Because of those considerations, the American forces of the 1770s eventually adopted the conventional tactics and armaments of the British and won as much on the field of battle as by skilled diplomacy. The long rifles of Pennsylvania were a factor in the victory, but hardly the paramount reason for the success of the secession.

Why do were view rifles as so superior to the smoothbores in combat? My guess is that perception has more to do with the observations of the Crimean War and the American Civil war. In both conflicts, soldiers used flintlock smoothbores against percussion rifles loaded with Minié balls. A percussion rifle is quicker to load, easier to shoot (no upflash!). Undersized hollow-base conical Minié balls load as rapidly as a round ball, and they can expand to seal the bore on firing to retain velocity much further downrange. However, a .58 caliber Enfield rifled musket of 1853 is not the same as the humble .36 caliber squirrel rifle of 1775 the Americans pressed into use for killing redcoats.

Revolutionary Firepower

Battle of Bunker Hill

As July Fourth approaches, and Americans everywhere prepare to celebrate our independence, some of us take the time to look back at the stories and legends that helped shape our future as a nation. When British forces invaded the United States to try to take back control, the Continental Army and its various militias were waiting with an array of weapons, anxious to send a message to King George. In this post, we are going to look at the weapons of the time, and some of the legends that go along with these almost ancient tools of war.

Standard Issue

Flintlock Mechanism

One of the most prevalent long guns of the era was the Brown Bess. This was a smooth-bore musket designed for ranges between 50-100 yards. This would later prove to be problematic, since American sharpshooters had rifles that were effective up to 250 yards. The  .75 caliber, muzzle-loading flintlock-design Bess, allowed an experienced soldier to fire between three and four rounds per minute. As required by law, most American Colony male citizens  owned arms and ammunition for militia duty. The Long Land Pattern Brown Bess was a common firearm in use by both sides in the American Revolutionary War. Field tests of smooth-bore muskets in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries reported widely reliable expectations of accuracy and speed of fire. Estimations of rate of fire ranged from “1 shot every 15 seconds” (4 shots per minute) with highly trained troops, to “2 to 2.5 shots per minute” (1 shot every 24 seconds) for inexperienced recruits. Loading a Brown Bess was cumbersome at best, especially compared to modern-day firearms. The standard military loading procedure from prepared paper cartridges containing ball and gunpowder in an elongated envelope is:

  • Tear cartridge with teeth and prime the pan directly from the cartridge;
  • Stand the musket and pour the bulk of the powder down the barrel;
  • Reverse the cartridge and use the ramrod to seat the ball and paper envelop onto the powder charge.

Standard European targets included strips of cloth 50 yards long to represent an opposing line of infantry, with the target height being 6 feet for infantry and 8 feet, 3 inches for cavalry. Estimations of hit probability at 175 yards could be as high as 75% in volley fire. This, however, was without allowances for the gaps between the soldiers in an opposing line, for overly tall targets, or the confusing and distracting realities of the battlefield. Modern testers shooting from rigid rests, using optimum loads and fast priming powder, report groups of circa five inches at 50 yards (Cumpston 2008).

Long Distance Precision

Colonists developed the Pennsylvania Rifle (and its many variations) during the early eighteenth century. The Long Rifle was the one of the first completely American designs. The rifle had a somewhat elegant look, due mostly to the stock of the gun, which gracefully bends at the stock. It had an unusually long barrel, sometimes more than four feet. The barrel of the Pennsylvania featured rifling, allowing much greater accuracy. This accuracy came at a price however; the rifle could take up to a full minute to load. To conserve materials, the weapon was often made in smaller calibers, ranging from about .36 to .45 caliber. In 1778, a British officer, stuck his head out from behind a tree, and was shot through the forehead by Daniel Boone. Both sides later confirmed the shot to be at a distance of 250 yards, well beyond the effective range of the Brown Bess.

Up Close and Personal

One of the most gruesome weapons of the war was the bayonet. A soldier who only had one shot tended to feel a bit better when his rifle doubled as a stabbing weapon. Armies of the time often routed when facing a well-timed bayonet charge from the enemy. The Americans in particular had a difficult time facing off with British regulars, who often had trained for years in bayonet combat. Recent advances in technology had resulted in the plug bayonet. This design allowed the gun to fire with the bayonet still attached to the end of the barrel. The triangular cross section of the bayonet made wounds particularly difficult to repair, which later led to the international banning of this type of blade.

Artillery Gun Crew

Death from Above

Known as the queen of the battlefield, the cannon often stood supreme. With varying ranges, a well-placed array of cannons could potentially hold off an entire regiment of soldiers. Militiamen in often did not have cannons of their own which resulted in a large number of British victories early in the war. Cannons of the time could fire either solid or grape shot. Grape shot consisted of an iron ball, filled with black powder, and fitted with a fuse. These projectiles would often detonate above the heads of the opposing forces, causing heavy casualties. Solid shot, on the other hand, was devastating to stationary targets as well as units that lined up in open field. With an effective range of up to 800 yards, solid shot was the advanced artillery of the time.

Tactics Win Wars

Weapons do not always decide the outcome of a conflict. This is a lesson that the United States has re-learned in recent decades. Invariably, a guerrilla force operating on its own turf, can wreak havoc on an occupying army, far away from its supply lines. The Continental Army, at first, could not hope to defeat the largest army in the world in the open field. As a result, an ingenious combination of unconventional weapons, spy networks, and yes, a little help from the French, ended up turning the tides in the favor of the America revolutionaries.