Slug Up! Shotgun Ammo Choices for Defense

By Bob Campbell published on in Ammunition

For personal defense, many of us rely on a shotgun as a house or truck gun. Many see the shotgun as the ultimate problem solver. While the shotgun is easily the most effective of the three firearms we are likely to use—the rifle, handgun and shotgun—that is only true if you have practiced and loaded the shotgun with the proper shells.

Gray haired man in green shirt with red ear protection and safety glasses shoots a Raptor barrel facing the right, against a grassy background.

You must manage recoil with the shotgun. A self-loader, such as the Raptor, takes some of the sting out of recoil, but you must always use full-power loads.

As an example, birdshot is often recognized as a good choice for home defense. The theory goes that light shot is effective at conversational range although not likely to penetrate interior walls. There is some truth to that, and birdshot often fails to penetrate more than a few inches in gelatin or water testing. But I do not wish to bet my life on a loading that may not penetrate a leather jacket.

Silver recovered Winchester .410 slug on the left with two red cartridges on the right on a gray mottled background.

The Winchester .410 slug is deadly effective on predators, such as coyote.

Manufacturers made birdshot for game birds that weigh only a few ounces each. Heavier shot, and particularly the various reduced-recoil buckshot loads, is a better choice. Another, even more effective choice, I believe, is the shotgun slug. My opinions on buckshot may be controversial, so I will leave it at this—buckshot in the typical open-choke, home-defense shotgun is a good 15-yard option. Past that range, we should use slugs.

At close range, you must aim the shotgun as carefully as a rifle. It is true that the feel and fit of a shotgun make fast aiming and firing quickly easier. That is why I am not overly fond of adding an AR-15-type rifle stock or rifle sights to a home-defense shotgun. A simple bead-front sight works just fine in dim light. If you use the piece as an all-around predator and pest popper at long range, then an aperture sight or the Bushnell First Strike red dot scope is a good idea.

However, for traditional home defense, the pump shotgun with a bead-front sight is an excellent choice. And a slug load is something worth considering. The typical slug load jolts a 487-grain slug to about 1300 fps, which gives off energy.

If you need penetration, the 1-ounce slug has it. This is not the load to use if you may send it through a wall into the neighbors’ home or for apartment dwellers. If you are in a rural setting or have brick walls at the end of the likely cone of fire, the slug is a decisive choice. I like slugs because they are effective and I know where the slug is going.

Illustration of the Hornady 12 gauge SST on a white background

The Hornady 12-gauge SST is among the most accurate slug loads, well suited to hunting.

The Hornady 12-gauge Critical Defense is one example of buckshot that is very dense at close range. The pattern of the Hornady load is the densest I have yet tested in conventional buckshot. Even so, it is a pattern, not a single projectile. Recoil is there with buckshot, while a reduced-recoil slug is quite controllable at about 1150 fps.

When considering whether to go with reduced-recoil loads, the question is easily answered for buckshot; those loads give less recoil and a denser pattern, and low-recoil buckshot is the way to go. When it comes to reduced-recoil slugs, the same is true for home defense in most situations.

Seven different recovered shotgun slugs on a mottled white-to-gray background.

The author recovered these slugs from testing. Impressive!

On the other hand, the full-power slug has proven to stay in the body often. When hunting deer, full-power slugs are decisive. They often expand and usually shed a fragment or two that trails behind the main payload. Reduced-recoil slugs actually penetrate further and seldom expand; they make a huge hole without expanding.

If you are firing at longer range—a good rifle-sighted shotgun is accurate to 100 yards with a proper slug and slug barrel—then the reduced recoil load is more difficult to hit. It simply loses velocity and drops more than a full-power slug, so you need to carefully consider all of those factors.

If the likely engagement range is more than 25 yards, perhaps you should consider using the full-power slug. Animal defense is an unfortunate reality.

  • If the likely threat is a feral dog or a pack, buckshot is a great choice.
  • If the threat is a bear around the campsite, the full-power Fiocchi Aero Slug works better.
Silver recovered Winchester .410 slug on a gray mottled background.

This is a recovered Winchester slug—and it is just a .410!

I have a respect for the .410 that many experienced shooters share, especially since it is light, fast handling and more effective than many realize. The .410 bore Winchester slug is effective on coyote, bobcat and the like, although it does not have the range and penetration of a rifle. This is also an accurate combination, striking near the point of aim in my personal shotgun.

Too many shotgunners keep a slug or two on hand just in case and have no idea of the slug’s characteristics. You cannot rely on skills you cannot demonstrate. You really need to understand the point of impact and point of aim relationship.

The silver Speed Feed stock of the RIA shotgun with a Wolf cartridge.

The Speed Feed stock of the RIA shotgun is a good tactical accessory.

The slug may impact high or low. As an example, in the case of my personal RIA M5 shotgun, slugs impact about an inch high at 15 yards. When firing over the front bead, you easily can account for that difference. The Rock Island Armory (RIA) shotgun is a bargain and a good work-a-day value. I usually keep it loaded with buckshot.

The RIA M5 features a Speed Feed stock that holds two shells ready for instant use. I loaded this stock with slugs, just in case. The combination fits my needs well, although as time goes on and I collect more shooting histories, I tend to lean toward slugs over buckshot in almost every situation.

For those who practice, the shotgun slug is the best problem solver available.

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Have you practiced with buckshot and slugs? What were your results? Share in the comments section.

SLRule

Bob Campbell is a former peace officer and published author with over 40 years combined shooting and police and security experience. Bob holds a degree in Criminal Justice. Bob is the author of the books, The Handgun in Personal Defense, Holsters for Combat and Concealed Carry, The 1911 Automatic Pistol, The Gun Digest Book of Personal Protection and Home Defense, The Shooter’s Guide to the 1911, The Hunter and the Hunted, and The Complete Illustrated Manual of Handgun Skills. His latest book is Dealing with the Great Ammo Shortage. He is also a regular contributor to Gun Tests, American Gunsmith, Small Arms Review, Gun Digest, Concealed Carry Magazine, Knife World, Women and Guns, Handloader and other publications. Bob is well-known for his firearm testing.

 

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Comments (25)

  • OLD&GRUMPY

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    The .69 ball loads I talked about are not very accurate from a 18″cylinder bore.28″ mod was better. A rifled barrel with good sights might be best. Stick with a good slug for anything important . For fun we “lobbed” them at a high berm at 250 yards.The “pattern” was about 15 feet when it finely got there! They are cheep fun for less than new target loads. 1 oz junk lead, clay buster wads,used hulls and a target load of red dot.

    Reply

  • Pete in Alaska

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    I would suggest to one and all that they look into a company called “D Duplex” these guys make shotgun munitions that shame any other. For either hunting or tactical use you need to take a look at their products. Look at their speciality munitions for home defense and amor penetrator offerings. Their hunting munitions are superior to anything else in the market place. No, I don’t work for them but I do rely on their products.

    Reply

  • Dave

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    I am a firm believer in Remington Express, 12 Ga., 2 3/4 in. 01 Buck. 01 Buck delivers the right amount of penetration and is less prone to over penetration than 000 or 00 buckshot. Spread is highly controlled at the distance most homeowners would have to consider.

    Reply

  • OLD&GRUMPY

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    Thanks for the feed back. I suspect that the pattern From the nobelsport buck and ball was big because the buck is forced up under the round ball with no shot card or buffer between them.This might cause the buck to spread early.In the PDX round the buck leads the slug. I will try this again .Will check the distance and use a fresh cardboard.

    Reply

  • Retired

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    BB’s at 15 feet from a Mossberg with 18 1/2 inch barrel only open up to about a 7 inch pattern. Number 4 shot only opens the pattern up to about an 8 inch pattern at 15 feet. You need to be pretty much on target in the dark to hit anything..

    Reply

  • JJM

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    I assumed a 12 ga. Was surprised about the 10″ spread at such a short range, with the increased power and # projectiles a 12 ga offers.

    Reply

    • OLD&GRUMPY

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      JJM=You were right.I got to re shoot the NS buck and ball. I used a tape to check the distance instead of guessing. Used clean card board. Patterns were 4 to 6 inches. The wad ripped a massive hole about 3 inches farther out. I apologize for the bad info .Back to slugs. I have been loading Lee .69 round ball loads . They look promising Just over 1 oz. Will post about them after I fire a bunch more.

      Reply

  • JJM

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    I like the 10″ pattern. Slightly tighter than what I remember (didn’t record) on a 3″ Judge with 3″ #4 shells (12″ to 16″ pattern??).

    Reply

    • OLD&GRUMPY

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      Sorry I should have been clear. The 10” pattern was from a 12 gauge 870 not a judge. I have more ideas on defense rounds but for now the grand kids have fried my brain.Will post them later. The ideas not the kids.

      Reply

  • FFF

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    As far as home protection is concerned, anyone who walks through that door or enters through that window will feel a whole lot of hurt. Birdshot hurts I know been shot with it, and when your hit you know it. It may be small and not tightly grouped but it does go through skin and as well it will break bones. Due to having a kid and the thought of a stray round impacting him while he slept is more than i care to bear. I found that I trust 870 single bead home defense model loaded with 2 rounds of bird and if need be I got 3 more full of 00 buck. And if the threat is still their afterwards after expending all my rounds than that’s when I call for an artillery strike. Now as far as the effectiveness of slugs I have taken many of big game animals down using remington’s coppersolids. the problem with homedefense is they pack a punch and will devastate anything they hit. I was always taught as well as knowing whats behind your target before you ever shoot, but m sorry in a defense situation in your house after being woken up and finding an intruder that kind of goes out the window. That is another reason I use the bird over buck and slugs, hate to have a bullet travel out the front door down the street and go 5 houses down and still have the energy to kill someone. So for me its up close and personal and anything else is overkill. Happy shooting be safe and be happy.

    Reply

  • Mike Walker

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    My home defense weapon is an 870 tactical with 16″ IC barrel. The first two rounds are 00 buck for point or offhand shooting. The remainder in the extended mag are slugs for when I have time to aim. In my opinion, personal defense isn’t limited to inside the home. I can understand the problem in apartment dwelling but I have a single family with a large lot.

    Reply

  • OLD&GRUMPY

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    I have been playing around with Nobelsport Italias Multidefence round{buck&ball}. It is way too hot for apartment use but might bridge the gap between close and longer range targets.I reviewed it in two spots at CTD, The ball is .65 and 393gn. The buck is 6 #1 and 212gn for a total of 605gn moving 1300fps. From a 18″cylinder bore it gave a 10″ pattern at 25′. At 90′ the buck was all over the place but the ball made a 4″ pattern of 5 shots. I was not trying very hard but that seems ok for a undersize ball in a short smooth bore. Most self defense shots will not be at long range. In a live or die spot I don’t want to fish around for the right round. Winchesters PDX slug and buck may do the same job, a pattern in close with a knock down ball at distance. A doped up intruder may not be stopped by a light round. Remember the army went from .38 to .45acp because the .38 did not stop a motivated attack.You need to asses your gun needs with a SOBER mind not your testosterone.

    Reply

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