There are many firearm choices for home defense. The choice hinges on recoil tolerance, weight, bulk, expense, locale, and the shooters ability. You may choose a rifle, shotgun, or handgun, but the shotgun offers the greatest wound potential and the greatest versatility. Let’s get over some myths concerning the shotgun. You do have to aim! While the shotgun has a good natural point, and aims naturally, you must aim the piece to center the payload. With a spread of perhaps two inches at seven yards to four inches at 10 yards, you can miss easily if you do not center the load.
Another false assumption is the recommendation for the use of birdshot in the shotgun for home defense. While the area covered would sting, if the assailant is heavily clad there is a good chance the shot load would not penetrate his clothing. If it does, gelatin tests have shown that birdshot penetrates perhaps 3 inches or less in a human body. A pellet intended to humanely kill a bird weighing perhaps a few ounces isn’t suitable for use against our protein fed ex-con criminal class or a dangerous animal.
The Hornady buckshot line is designed with optimum wadding to make a cohesive pattern at combat ranges. At seven yards, most often there is simply a ragged hole in the target. As we move out to 10 and 15 yards, a pattern the size of a fist is evident. I don’t know about you, but my experience indicates I want to land as much of the combat load as possible on the threat.
A spread is nice for hitting something, somewhere, at longer range but at shotgun combat range—3 to 20 yards—I want a tight pattern. I want the maximum shot density and damage to the threat. I want to know my point of aim and impact and where the load strikes in relation to the bead, sight, or red dot I am using.
Many are concerned with the penetration of buckshot in a home defense situation. This is true to an extent, but no more so than those of us using handguns for home defense. Buckshot will, however, flatten on brick and cinder blocks. It will even bounce back, so be careful when testing penetration of buckshot on various constructs.
A wild shot is bad news for the neighbors, but what the hell are you doing firing a wild shot? An aimed shot will be centered in the threat’s body and most likely stop what he is doing. The same is true of a handgun round as far as penetration goes. As for as wound potential and ‘knock down,’ the shotgun is far superior. Knock down isn’t physically possible but a severe wound will cause blood loss and incapacitation. The goal isn’t to release a payload that would serve well in an Israeli police action but to stop the threat with a minimum of well controlled shots.
Either of the Hornady buckshot loads carry over 1,500 pounds of energy, and up to about 1,800 ft.-lbs. That is more than three times the energy of a typical .357 Magnum bullet. We call buckshot pellets but the proper term would be buckshot balls as they are each .33 caliber and weigh over 50 grains. That is impressive. It is similar to getting hit with a barrage of pistol gunfire, with each striking the body simultaneously. (OK, I know buckshot doesn’t travel in a circle but a string, sure, but you get the point.)
After testing the Hornady buckshot loads, I found that all three are useful for placing the full load of shot into less than four inches at home defense distance. For area defense and close range defense against wild animals, they are impressive.
Buckshot has proven effective against most four legged threats, and sharks, but that is another story. You are not helpless to 50 yards or so with buckshot—if you know your shotgun and your load.
I tested four Hornady loads. They are supplied in 10-round boxes. A note on velocity, my Remington 870 Tactical features an 18-inch barrel. These loads will obtain the full, published velocity or more in a typical 28-inch barrel. The Varmint Express in particular is a hunting and predator load. The Hornady loads were as fast or faster than competing loads and the patterns excellent, but you need to understand the limitations of your firearm too.
#4 buckshot load #86246
Labeled Varmint Express, this load is ideal for snagging running coyote and the like. For personal defense, the pattern is wide at 21 feet and offers high hit probability. Recoil was the least of any of the loads tested. At 1,200 fps, this is a load with greater penetration than most game shot but with reasonable recoil.
Hornady Black 00 Buck #86249
This is the full-power buckshot load intended for self-loading shotguns and sporting shotguns designed to take down deer-sized game. A full choke and a longer barrel are demanded for best performance. Just the same, a load developed 1,377 fps in the Remington’s 18-inch barrel isn’t to be sneezed at!
Hornady American Gunner Reduced Recoil 00 Buck #86274
At 1,260 fps, this load has plenty of power but offers less recoil than full power buckshot. I was surprised by the tight pattern in my open cylinder choked Remington. At 12 feet, the pattern was 1.75×2 inches. This is a tight concentration of shot and one that would even offer the chances of a head shot if that was all that was exposed, without other balls flying wild.
However, during testing, occasionally the tightest groups at 21 feet are opened by a flyer an inch or more away. That is the nature of buckshot. This is the first choice for me for home defense, and if still in uniform, this would be the load I would prefer to deploy.
For the most power in a short-range situation, say, against the big cats or if I were using a self-loading shotgun that demanded more power to cycle, the Hornady Black would be the first choice. For varmints and predators, the Varmint Express load. For personal defense, I would choose the American Gunner. You simply cannot go wrong with these choices.
Have you tried Hornady’s shotgun loads? What was your impression? Share your answers in the comment section.
Bob Campbell is a former peace officer and published author with over 40 years combined shooting and police and security experience. Bob holds a degree in Criminal Justice. Bob is the author of the books, The Handgun in Personal Defense, Holsters for Combat and Concealed Carry, The 1911 Automatic Pistol, The Gun Digest Book of Personal Protection and Home Defense, The Shooters Guide to the 1911, The Hunter and the Hunted, and The Complete Illustrated Manual of Handgun Skills. His latest book is Dealing with the Great Ammo Shortage. He is also a regular contributor to Gun Tests, American Gunsmith, Small Arms Review, Gun Digest, Concealed Carry Magazine, Knife World, Women and Guns, Handloader and other publications. Bob is well-known for his firearm testing.
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