Why the Glock 23 Should be Your New Carry Gun

By Bob Campbell published on in Firearms

I have been surprised at the popularity of the Glock 19 9mm versus that of the Glock 23 .40S&W among civilian shooters.

I do not know anyone that carries the Glock 23 on their own time and their own dime. Practically everyone in my circle of friends and associates owns at least one Glock 19. The handguns are identical in size and shape and fit the same holsters. My yardstick, tape measure and calipers show that each is 7.35 inches long, about 5.0 inches high and 1.18 inch thick. They weigh but 23.6 ounces unloaded and pump up to about 32 ounces loaded. Neither Glock features a manual safety. The firing pin block and safety lever in the trigger are the whole show. True safety is between the ears.

Glock 23 left angled

The Glock 23 is a great all-around handgun that represents a good balance of power and weight.

The real difference is in magazine capacity. The Glock 19 9mm features a 15-round magazine while the Glock 23 .40 caliber pistol carries 13 rounds in the magazine. Clearly, either holds enough cartridges on tap for any foreseeable difficulty.

The Glock 23 features the typical Glock double-action-only trigger. There is only one trigger action to learn. In my example, the action is fast and light enough at 6 pounds. Trigger reset is rapid. The Glock 23 is snag free, fast into action, and simply feels good in the hands. The sights are adequate for the task at hand—especially with the night sight option. The Glock is easily field stripped and maintained. Overall, the Glock 23 is not only a good concealed carry handgun, but an acceptable service pistol as well.

15-yard accuracy, Glock 23, from a solid benchrest
Hornady 155-grain XTP 1.8 inches
Winchester 155-grain Silvertip 2. 0 inches
Remington 180-grain Golden Saber 2.25 inches

This brings us to the obvious comparison. The Glock Model 23 is chambered for the .40 Smith & Wesson cartridge. The .40 is a result of many studies into problems that have dogged police side arms for over 100 years. The Smith & Wesson .38 Special handled well and was mild to fire. The problem was that it did not do the job it was intended to do. The original 158-grain RNL .38 load was often called a ‘widowmaker’ because it failed the officers carrying it.

Glock 23 and Glock 19

The author’s personal Glock 23 compared to the Glock 19. These are similar handguns, but firing characteristics differ due to greater recoil of the .40 caliber cartridge.

Eventually, the powerful .357 Magnum cartridge was chambered in a relatively compact revolver. The Smith & Wesson Model 19, and the later Model 13, were great service revolvers. Problem was, they were difficult to control without extensive training. The magnum cartridge was also hard on the gun. They did not crack or blow, but magnum recoil was hard on small parts. The .40 was shoehorned into the 9mm frame in much the same manner and much the same problems surfaced.

The .40 S&W is more difficult to control than the 9mm and weapon wear is regarded as greater, although this differs from brand to brand. Will we ever learn? Yet, a study by the Feds some years ago confirmed what many harness cops already knew. A handgun over 35 ounces becomes a burden by the end of the day. The 9mm size handgun is ideal for carry and for hand fit. A .45 caliber pistol such as the excellent Glock 21 is a stretch for most hand sizes. A general consensus was reached—supported by well-documented cases and by research—that the 9mm wasn’t enough for police work.

Water test results Velocity Penetration Expansion
Hornady Critical Defense 115-grain FTX 1140 fps 14.0 .56
Cor Bon 115-grain DPX +P 1235 fps 11.0 .63
Winchester Ranger 147-grain SXT 940 fps 15.0 .54
Hornady 155-grain XTP 1090 fps 17.5 .72
Cor Bon 135-grain JHP 1290 fps 12.0 .70
Remington 180-grain Golden Saber 980 fps 14.5 .65

We could debate the 9mm from here to Ragnorak, but the fact remains the 9mm’s wound potential isn’t up to the .45 ACP—but the .45 is too heavy to carry. I am certain a .45 can be made as light as a 9mm, but the .900-inch long cartridge case demands a long grip frame. The same goes for the 10mm. The .40 had been kicking around for a while in the form of the centimeter round—.41 Action Express and others. The .40 S&W was a success story. There were a few cracks in the canvas, however. One Federal agency rushed to adopt the Glock 32 and went back to the 9mm because the officers were not qualifying to the previous high standard with the Glock 23.

The 9mm Luger and .40 caliber Smith & Wesson cartridges compared. The .40 kicks and hits harder.

The 9mm Luger and .40 caliber Smith & Wesson cartridges compared. The .40 kicks and hits harder.

This is understandable. Recoil is greater. The first runs of .40 caliber ammunition did not display a high degree of accuracy. Some were loaded perhaps too hot. Various loads demonstrate excellent wound potential. I have added a few results garnered from experimentation with water from 21st Century Stopping Power, Paladin Press. The author is a military intelligence officer and the results are verifiable and repeatable. As you can see the results with the .40 caliber across the spectrum of light and heavy bullets and various velocity gives better wound potential than the 9mm. But this isn’t the whole story.

Power Factor

9mm Power .40 S&W Power .45 ACP Power
115 grains 1140 fps 13 155 grains 1090 fps 17 230 grains 868 fps 19.9
115 grains 1235 fps 14 135 grains 1290 fps 17 185 grains 920 fps 17
147 grains 940 fps 14 180 grains 980 fps 17.5

Shot placement means a great deal. The Glock 19 9mm is easier to shoot well than the .40 caliber pistol. While recoil energy may be calculated, the easiest way is to calculate power factor. This is bullet weight times velocity divided by 1,000. It is generally regarded that a power factor of 20 or above is too much for control by most shooters in a personal defense gun.

Glock 23 in Blackhawk IWB holster

The author often carries his Glock 23 in this Blackhawk! inside the waistband holster.

9mm defense loads rate 13 to 14, the .40 runs to 17 and over. The 230-grain .45 is at 20; the .45 ACP 185-grain standard load is at about 17. (The PF isn’t the whole picture—the full size Glock 21 .45 is among the easiest kicking handguns in the Glock line due to size and weight.) So we have a pistol that hits harder, but kicks harder. Gee, Einstein was right! Many shooters find themselves choosing the 9mm if they want a lot of shots and the .45 if they want knockdown power. Nothing wrong with that, but they ignore the .40.

As for myself, I like the Glock 23. I have been impressed by results I have carefully researched and cataloged. For those willing to practice and accept lower times between shots, greater recoil, and perhaps slightly less absolute accuracy, the Model 23 offers excellent real world ballistics. The Glock 23 is as accurate to a fast first shot as the Glock 19. For those considering a compact pistol and moving from the .45, the Glock 23 offers the best of both worlds. The Glock 23 isn’t for everyone, but which handgun is? It is a well-balanced and reliable handgun, and it is all Glock.

Glock 23
Action Type Semi-automatic/Safe Action
Barrel Length 4.02 inches
Caliber .40 S&W
Overall Height 4.99inches
Overall Length 7.36 inches
Overall Width 1.18 inches
Weight Unloaded 21.16 ounces
Sights Fixed
Capacity 13
Magazines 2
Frame Polymer

9mm or .40 S&W? Do you carry the Glock 23 or Glock 19? Share you experiences with the Glock 23, 19 or your preferred Glock in the comment section.

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Bob Campbell is a former peace officer and published author with over 40 years combined shooting and police and security experience. Bob holds a degree in Criminal Justice. Bob is the author of the books, The Handgun in Personal Defense, Holsters for Combat and Concealed Carry, The 1911 Automatic Pistol, The Gun Digest Book of Personal Protection and Home Defense, The Shooter’s Guide to the 1911, The Hunter and the Hunted, and The Complete Illustrated Manual of Handgun Skills. His latest book is Dealing with the Great Ammo Shortage. He is also a regular contributor to Gun Tests, American Gunsmith, Small Arms Review, Gun Digest, Concealed Carry Magazine, Knife World, Women and Guns, Handloader and other publications. Bob is well-known for his firearm testing.

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Comments (153)

  • Fender


    Wow… I had no idea!!

    My daily carry is a G23!! I love it and I’m glad I picked it.


  • Melvin Karmazin


    Nice write up! I keep hearing and reading people say “With todays ammo, there is no difference between 9mm, .40 cal and .45 ACP”! I say nonsense! The same ammo advancements that improved 9mm also improved .40 cal and .45 ACP. IMHO; even if you didn’t know anything about firearms ballistics, just lining up the 3 caliber cartridges along side each other, to say the 9mm “equals” the .40 cal and .45 ACP is foolish.
    AS far as the FBI report that 9mm meets or exceeds LEO requirements, I don’t believe the FBI report. I firmly believe it a political correct report so woman and small men can qualify with their firearms. It has been widely know that many LEO’s could not qualify as well or at all when switching from 9mm to .40 cal’s. So, instead of improving training and competency, it was easier to lower the bar on ammo…….The FBI isn’t fooling me!
    Just my opinion……


    • Facio


      Agree. Idk if half the ppl even kno wtf they’re talking about, I mean if guy says well with the advanced top of the line ammo a 9mm is just as powerful as a 40. Really? So they just decided to not advance the tech or components in anything but 9mm? Lmao some ppl as far as common sense lol


  • deadarmadillo






    The G23 always works with lightly-built shooters where the G19 fails. Weak grip will induce stovepipes in the 9mm, whereas the snappier recoil of the .40 will cycle the pistol without fail. The .40 caliber Glocks can always be down-sized to fire the Nine with a conversion barrel, but the Nines can’t be up-sized. Every student I’ve worked with who had reliability problems on the range shooting a Nine saw their reliability issues disappear when handed a G23. They all acknowledge the extra recoil, but cling to the G23 because it WORKS.
    There are loads in .40 that will eclipse the .45 ACP in power factor, but who cares? The permanent wound tracks in gel between .40 and .45 are pretty much the same.


  • Grubbs David


    PS: I will say that the best thing I ever did was change to a 3.5lb trigger!!! My accuracy tripled and my rate of fire doubled almost!!! I know some think that it’s not safe… and they are welcome to use the 12 (I think) lb NY adapters if they feel they can’t control their finger (the safety) well enough!!! All of my AR’s have 3.5 Gisselle trigger’s and it’s a comfortable weight for me.

    Those who worry about round count, carry a spare. Actually carry the full size 15 rd spare. By the time you get to reloading in a self defense situation, you will not care that it sticks out the bottom a little bit!!! I keep a 32 rd spare in my vehicle too.


  • Grubbs David


    I have had my first (I have 3) Glock 23 since 1999 and just recently rebuilt it (new springs etc)… not because of any problems, but because it is my carry pistol and I had a solid 7,000 rounds through it at the range. I now own a 9mm barrel for it (and an Osprey suppressor, BIG GRIN. LOL). About a yr ago I was shooting my steel targets from about 10 yds. I had the 9mm barrel in and shot the 2″ target a few times as it swung on the 18″ chains. Then when my 9mm mags were empty I swapped to the original barrel…. The first shot hit so hard the target flipped all the way back and looped OVER TOP of the 2×4!!! Ever since that my 9mm vs 40 debate was over!!! Add to that the fact I do figure 8 drills around 12-15 yds and draw, hit an IPSC zone C torso 3 times (1-2 through the center mass flap) and be back in “compressed ready” before the 1st brass has hit the ground!!!! I am just an average self defense guy with ZERO military or LEO training!!! I just try to practice.

    So all that said… yes, I LOOOOVE my 23 and find it to be perfect for CCDW carry too!!! The only 9mm I own is the Glock 43 because I’m Florida sometimes I need to go a bit smaller. If they come out with a single stack 40 then mom will get that and I’ll be 40 all the way.

    Just my OPINION based on what I have done/seen.


  • U8SM5C


    Initially my G23 was just OK until I made a few modifications, now it is my EDC and favorite firearm. Changes include:

    A Pyramid Trigger, same trigger pull weight but significantly better break and don’t have the ridges on the trigger.

    A steel guide rod which tames much of the muzzle flip assisting with follow up shots.

    TrueGlo TFX sights. Greatly increases my ability to line up on target day or in low light.

    Finally added an extended slide release for convenience.

    Improving perfection is hard but these modifications makes the .40 much easier and faster shooter for me.


  • Marc R


    A few months ago I bought a Glock 27 after shooting a friends. I have really enjoyed it. For whatever reason this little hand cannon makes me grin. I’m now considering buying a G23 to add to my collection.

    On shoot ability, I went to the range yesterday with my Nano and G27. The Nano has been a disappointment for me since I like Berettas. It is harder for me to handle the Nano 9mm than the G27 in .40. I’m looking forward to trying out a G23!


  • Tanner


    I see so many complaining about the recoil of the .40 and slower follow up shots, less capacity blah blah. Its not a problem for me. I dont think its going to matter in a self defense situation. If you need more than 13 shots you are outnumbered and probably going to die anyway right? The 9mm is a good round dont get me wrong. I just prefer bigger. Its the same reason most 9mm guys wouldnt carry a .380 or .22 ha!


    • Facio


      That all makes perfect sense, but try telling diehard 9mm guy that😂😂😂


  • Nosyaj


    I own a G23 Gen4 just came from the Range and I have to say that I fall in love with my G23 Gen4 more and more every time I shoot it.

    I’m always on target and I feel more confident with every pull of the trigger!

    Recoil is not an issue for me when using my G23.


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