Why the Glock 23 Should be Your New Carry Gun

By Bob Campbell published on in Firearms

I have been surprised at the popularity of the Glock 19 9mm versus that of the Glock 23 .40S&W among civilian shooters.

I do not know anyone that carries the Glock 23 on their own time and their own dime. Practically everyone in my circle of friends and associates owns at least one Glock 19. The handguns are identical in size and shape and fit the same holsters. My yardstick, tape measure and calipers show that each is 7.35 inches long, about 5.0 inches high and 1.18 inch thick. They weigh but 23.6 ounces unloaded and pump up to about 32 ounces loaded. Neither Glock features a manual safety. The firing pin block and safety lever in the trigger are the whole show. True safety is between the ears.

Glock 23 left angled

The Glock 23 is a great all-around handgun that represents a good balance of power and weight.

The real difference is in magazine capacity. The Glock 19 9mm features a 15-round magazine while the Glock 23 .40 caliber pistol carries 13 rounds in the magazine. Clearly, either holds enough cartridges on tap for any foreseeable difficulty.

The Glock 23 features the typical Glock double-action-only trigger. There is only one trigger action to learn. In my example, the action is fast and light enough at 6 pounds. Trigger reset is rapid. The Glock 23 is snag free, fast into action, and simply feels good in the hands. The sights are adequate for the task at hand—especially with the night sight option. The Glock is easily field stripped and maintained. Overall, the Glock 23 is not only a good concealed carry handgun, but an acceptable service pistol as well.

15-yard accuracy, Glock 23, from a solid benchrest
Hornady 155-grain XTP 1.8 inches
Winchester 155-grain Silvertip 2. 0 inches
Remington 180-grain Golden Saber 2.25 inches

This brings us to the obvious comparison. The Glock Model 23 is chambered for the .40 Smith & Wesson cartridge. The .40 is a result of many studies into problems that have dogged police side arms for over 100 years. The Smith & Wesson .38 Special handled well and was mild to fire. The problem was that it did not do the job it was intended to do. The original 158-grain RNL .38 load was often called a ‘widowmaker’ because it failed the officers carrying it.

Glock 23 and Glock 19

The author’s personal Glock 23 compared to the Glock 19. These are similar handguns, but firing characteristics differ due to greater recoil of the .40 caliber cartridge.

Eventually, the powerful .357 Magnum cartridge was chambered in a relatively compact revolver. The Smith & Wesson Model 19, and the later Model 13, were great service revolvers. Problem was, they were difficult to control without extensive training. The magnum cartridge was also hard on the gun. They did not crack or blow, but magnum recoil was hard on small parts. The .40 was shoehorned into the 9mm frame in much the same manner and much the same problems surfaced.

The .40 S&W is more difficult to control than the 9mm and weapon wear is regarded as greater, although this differs from brand to brand. Will we ever learn? Yet, a study by the Feds some years ago confirmed what many harness cops already knew. A handgun over 35 ounces becomes a burden by the end of the day. The 9mm size handgun is ideal for carry and for hand fit. A .45 caliber pistol such as the excellent Glock 21 is a stretch for most hand sizes. A general consensus was reached—supported by well-documented cases and by research—that the 9mm wasn’t enough for police work.

Water test results Velocity Penetration Expansion
Hornady Critical Defense 115-grain FTX 1140 fps 14.0 .56
Cor Bon 115-grain DPX +P 1235 fps 11.0 .63
Winchester Ranger 147-grain SXT 940 fps 15.0 .54
Hornady 155-grain XTP 1090 fps 17.5 .72
Cor Bon 135-grain JHP 1290 fps 12.0 .70
Remington 180-grain Golden Saber 980 fps 14.5 .65

We could debate the 9mm from here to Ragnorak, but the fact remains the 9mm’s wound potential isn’t up to the .45 ACP—but the .45 is too heavy to carry. I am certain a .45 can be made as light as a 9mm, but the .900-inch long cartridge case demands a long grip frame. The same goes for the 10mm. The .40 had been kicking around for a while in the form of the centimeter round—.41 Action Express and others. The .40 S&W was a success story. There were a few cracks in the canvas, however. One Federal agency rushed to adopt the Glock 32 and went back to the 9mm because the officers were not qualifying to the previous high standard with the Glock 23.

The 9mm Luger and .40 caliber Smith & Wesson cartridges compared. The .40 kicks and hits harder.

The 9mm Luger and .40 caliber Smith & Wesson cartridges compared. The .40 kicks and hits harder.

This is understandable. Recoil is greater. The first runs of .40 caliber ammunition did not display a high degree of accuracy. Some were loaded perhaps too hot. Various loads demonstrate excellent wound potential. I have added a few results garnered from experimentation with water from 21st Century Stopping Power, Paladin Press. The author is a military intelligence officer and the results are verifiable and repeatable. As you can see the results with the .40 caliber across the spectrum of light and heavy bullets and various velocity gives better wound potential than the 9mm. But this isn’t the whole story.

Power Factor

9mm Power .40 S&W Power .45 ACP Power
115 grains 1140 fps 13 155 grains 1090 fps 17 230 grains 868 fps 19.9
115 grains 1235 fps 14 135 grains 1290 fps 17 185 grains 920 fps 17
147 grains 940 fps 14 180 grains 980 fps 17.5

Shot placement means a great deal. The Glock 19 9mm is easier to shoot well than the .40 caliber pistol. While recoil energy may be calculated, the easiest way is to calculate power factor. This is bullet weight times velocity divided by 1,000. It is generally regarded that a power factor of 20 or above is too much for control by most shooters in a personal defense gun.

Glock 23 in Blackhawk IWB holster

The author often carries his Glock 23 in this Blackhawk! inside the waistband holster.

9mm defense loads rate 13 to 14, the .40 runs to 17 and over. The 230-grain .45 is at 20; the .45 ACP 185-grain standard load is at about 17. (The PF isn’t the whole picture—the full size Glock 21 .45 is among the easiest kicking handguns in the Glock line due to size and weight.) So we have a pistol that hits harder, but kicks harder. Gee, Einstein was right! Many shooters find themselves choosing the 9mm if they want a lot of shots and the .45 if they want knockdown power. Nothing wrong with that, but they ignore the .40.

As for myself, I like the Glock 23. I have been impressed by results I have carefully researched and cataloged. For those willing to practice and accept lower times between shots, greater recoil, and perhaps slightly less absolute accuracy, the Model 23 offers excellent real world ballistics. The Glock 23 is as accurate to a fast first shot as the Glock 19. For those considering a compact pistol and moving from the .45, the Glock 23 offers the best of both worlds. The Glock 23 isn’t for everyone, but which handgun is? It is a well-balanced and reliable handgun, and it is all Glock.

 
Glock 23
Action Type Semi-automatic/Safe Action
Barrel Length 4.02 inches
Caliber .40 S&W
Overall Height 4.99inches
Overall Length 7.36 inches
Overall Width 1.18 inches
Weight Unloaded 21.16 ounces
Sights Fixed
Capacity 13
Magazines 2
Frame Polymer

9mm or .40 S&W? Do you carry the Glock 23 or Glock 19? Share you experiences with the Glock 23, 19 or your preferred Glock in the comment section.

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SLRule

Bob Campbell is a former peace officer and published author with over 40 years combined shooting and police and security experience. Bob holds a degree in Criminal Justice. Bob is the author of the books, The Handgun in Personal Defense, Holsters for Combat and Concealed Carry, The 1911 Automatic Pistol, The Gun Digest Book of Personal Protection and Home Defense, The Shooter’s Guide to the 1911, The Hunter and the Hunted, and The Complete Illustrated Manual of Handgun Skills. His latest book is Dealing with the Great Ammo Shortage. He is also a regular contributor to Gun Tests, American Gunsmith, Small Arms Review, Gun Digest, Concealed Carry Magazine, Knife World, Women and Guns, Handloader and other publications. Bob is well-known for his firearm testing.

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Comments (151)

  • James

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    I own a Glock 17,19,20,21,22,23,32,and the new G40 all are great guns.
    The key to all hand guns and how the felt recoil is precieved is due to
    How good the shooter grips the gun
    A poor grip gives a greater precieved recoil a correct firm grip less!
    Point you can’t beat a glock no matter what caliber just control it

    Reply

  • C

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    We took the 23 to the range on
    Tuesday and tried out my new interchangable 357 SIG barrel. It worked flawlessly using my 40 cal magazine. My son and I put about 300 rounds downrange with it. Lot’s of fun and no issues, with no significant difference in flip/recoil. There was a little more flash using the same white box ammo. We all tried the OEM glock 22 round for the 40 cal ammo, and again no issues. I am now looking forward to getting the 9 mm barrel, and magazines to try out as well. What a great firearm!

    Reply

  • JC

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    Put a 20lb spring in the Glock 23 and it is about as easy to shoot as the G19 with no reliablity issues.

    Reply

  • Brian

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    C, thanks may have to check that out.

    Reply

  • C

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    Brian. It functions like a dry fire “Snap Cap” that fits in your barrel just like a round, when you pull the trigger the laser comes on for 1/100 of a second and lets you know if you hit your target. I put reflective tape on my old range targets bulls eyes so that it will light up when I hit my mark dead on. It’s also great for low light conditions. If your grip is steady it lights up as a small red dot, but it you jerk the trigger the it will light up as a streak, instead of a fine dot, letting you know that you you need to work on you trigger pull. It;s made of solid brass like a bullet and will last forever. On the back is a screw on brass piece with a switch inside protected by rubber. The switch is good for about 3000 rounds, and can be replaced with a new one for about $10+ batteries. You will save a ton on ammo, and can practice any time, or place. It comes in several calipers. I have the LT-40, and love it. Here’s the link laserlyte.com/products/trainer-lt-cartridge/ I am pretty sure CTD has them for sale on their website.

    Reply

  • C

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    I tried both the 19 and the 23 in Gen 3 & 4 versions before purchasing the Gen 4 23. I found no significant difference in flip/recoil on the Gen 4 23. The newere release with the beavertail backstraps reduce the flip. I love mine, and have bought a 357 SIG barrel for it, and plan to buy the 9 mm barrel in the near future. Why be limited to one Cal. when you can have three for a couple hundred dollars more? It’s like owning three Glocks of different Cal.

    Reply

    • Brian

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      I have a Gen 4 G23 and I bought the 357 barrel and I also bought the 9mm barrel, and a couple of G19 magazines, got a G19 single spring to go with it because with the double spring that comes with the G23 is to stiff to properly eject the spent 9mm brass so if you get the single spring that comes with the Gen3 G19 and run a box of 147 grain or some plus P ammo will break it in and I haven’t had a single problem with it. And like you said, why not have 3 different calibers for a little more than 700 dollars in everything….love my glocks

      Reply

    • C

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      Brian, I still haven’t purchased the 9 mm barrel to go with my 40, and 357. It’s good to hear you love yours and it is functioning perfectly. I do have the LaserLyte 40 Cal training cartridge, and love to train with it between trips to the range. I have multiple old range targets taped up throughout my property, and use them to train while moving about the property. I change them around regularly, and approach them from differnt angles using available cover. It’s great training, fun, and has improved my accuracy.

      Reply

    • Brian

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      C, THAT SOUNDS LIKE A LOT OF FUN, WOULD BE COOL TO GO THRU THERE WITH EACH BARREL TO SEE WHICH ONE YOUR MORE ACCURATE WITH.

      Reply

  • derek

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    “The Glock 19 9mm is easier to shoot well than the .40 caliber pistol” . . . you said it yourself.

    Reply

  • will basham

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    Have been a CCL holder for 8 years, Qualified first with a Rem. Western Revolver-9mm, at my renewal, I used a Glock 27, with an extended grip, increased rounds from 9-15! Mainly increased the stock size for my large hand, and now is quite comfortable for me! Recently got another for my wife, also a CCL holder, for her to qualify with next time. .Do really like the 40 better than the 9, for me at least. Good grief, I’m 70, slightly crippled, just like to level the field as much as possible! She will still have the 9!

    Reply

  • Mike K

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    Forget the caliber. The Springfield XD has many more safety devices, a far better trigger, doesn’t feel like a 2X4 in your hand and is just a plain better pistol. So is the 1911, but that is another subject.

    Reply

  • Joe

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    I’m sorry – I’m no math major. I thought it was mass x velocity SQUARED devide by 2 or the constant.
    You have “This is bullet weight times velocity divided by 1,000. It is generally regarded that a power factor of 20 or above is too much for control by most shooters in a personal defense gun.” That needs some explNation please. With bullet weight x velocity squared / 2 really put the 9mm in a better comparison in that the velocity is significantly more of a variable then slight differences in the grain. Again – I’m new to this, but I havrnt seen any formulas that don’t square the velocity. What am I missing? Respectfully

    Reply

    • huuf

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      In United States engineering units, particular care must be taken to ensure that consistent units are used.
      Mass, m, is usually given in grains and the speed, v, in feet per second but kinetic energy, Ek, is typically given in foot-pound force (abbreviated ft-lbf). Most sporting arms publications within the United States report muzzle energies in foot-pound force. If m is specified in grains and v in feet per second, the following equation can be used, which gives the energy in foot-pound force:

      v is the velocity of the bullet
      m is the mass of the bullet

      Reply

    • Phil

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      A foot-pound is a unit of energy/work. The metric equivalent is a joule a.k.a newton-meter. Found by:
      Energy (work) = force * displacement
      Energy (kinetic) = 1/2 mass * velocity squared.

      Your equation instead found the momentum of the bullet:
      momentum = mass * velocity

      I’m not sure, but I think kinetic energy would be a better indicator of destructive power.

      Reply

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