AR-15 .223 vs Mil-Spec 5.56mm Chambers

By Jerry Kraus published on in Firearms

What is the biggest difference between AR-15 .223 and Mil-Spec 5.56mm chambers? Most people do not know; they say, “I think you can shoot both kinds of ammo through either one, right?”

Then, they buy an AR-15 and start to get more educated. Frequently, they later have regrets they did not get the AR with a chamber they wanted because they did not know what to ask.

We are going to cover the major options in AR-15 chambers, including Mil-Spec chambers and the benefits of each. I am going to limit this to .223 Rem. and 5.56mm chambers and will address ARs with other calibers, such as .308 (7.62×51 NATO), in the future.

There are three types of chambers in the M16/M4/AR-15/MSR family of rifles, but most people think there are only two.

  • The first is the Mil-Spec 5.56mm chamber, which is used in the M16 and M4.
  • The second is the .223 chamber, the most common chamber in AR-15 rifles, although you can get AR-15s with a 5.56mm chamber (why you would want that is very interesting and I go into that in detail below).
  • The third is a .223 Match chamber, which is used in AR-15s by serious competitive AR-15 shooters.

.223 Rem Chamber

First, let us cover the most common AR-15 chamber, the .223 Remington chamber, commonly called .223 Rem. or just .223. Most AR-15s also come with chrome-lined chambers and barrels. It does not make sense in the manufacturing process to only have the bore (barrel) or only the chamber chrome lined, so if you read a spec sheet that says an AR has a “chrome-lined barrel,” you safely may assume the chamber is chrome lined as well.

.223 chambers are made to SAAMI (Sporting Arms and Ammunition Manufacturers Institute) specs, not Mil-Spec, so the chambers are slightly tighter and smaller than Mil-Spec 5.56 chambers. Normally, that is not a problem since the most plentiful ammo available to civilians is .223 and not 5.56mm. But many people buy ARs with .223 chambers because they do not know any better, and then they find out there are drawbacks to ARs with .223 chambers.

Drawback #1: The Myth of Using 5.56 mm Ammo in a .223

The first drawback to .223-chambered ARs is the myth that you can shoot 5.56mm Mil-Spec ammo through it. Manufacturers that print the two calibers on rifles and in rifle manuals synonymously further perpetuate that myth.

.223 Rem vs. 5.56mm Nato

From the outside, both cartridges look the same. However, looks are deceiving.

You can shoot 5.56 through your .223 chambered AR-15—but you may regret it.

Since 5.56mm Mil-Spec ammo is loaded hotter, it has higher chamber pressure. Built to SAAMI specs, not Mil-Spec, the .223 chamber is ever so slightly smaller than a 5.56 Mil-Spec chamber. So when you shoot 5.56 in a .223 chamber, the case cannot expand as much as it would in a 5.56 chamber.

Therefore, a couple of things happen with varying frequency. The most common is that you will blow primers; that means you will have the primer blow back into the receiver, which decreases reliability as it rattles around in your receiver or on top of your magazine.

You also will experience an increase in failures to eject the spent cases because the case has expanded so much from the hotter load in the smaller chamber, and you may not get the case out of the chamber without putting a rod down the barrel. Shooting Mil-Spec ammo through a .223 chamber also may crack your upper receiver; this is less common, but still happens, and is potentially dangerous to the shooter and nearby people.

So you can shoot 5.56 through a .223 chamber, but it is highly inadvisable.

Drawback #2: Heavy Bullets

The second big drawback to a .223 chamber is shooting heavier ammo—77 grains and above. This is the preferred bullet weight for national match shooters and snipers. The problem is that those rounds are slightly longer than lighter AR ammo, so the projectile is sticking slightly farther down the barrel when you chamber the round.

The problem becomes very obvious when you try to eject the heavier bullet-weight round from the chamber without firing it. This happens because the heavier projectile is slightly longer. On occasion, the rifling grooves may grab it when you try to eject it. The result is that you pull your charging handle back and the case comes off the bullet, spilling unspent powder on the receiver (and your magazine if you did not remove it first). As it ejects, you are left with a projectile in the barrel, and you will need a cleaning rod to knock it out. Then you will have a mess, and it is not fun—especially when you are on the firing line at Camp Perry competing for the national championships.

Match Chambers

This brings us to the .223 Match chamber. Most .223 Match chambers are not chrome lined. The biggest difference in .223 Match chambers is that the rifling does not begin as quickly, so you do not have the problems referenced above with the case coming off the projectile if you try to eject a live round from the chamber. This is the preferred chambering for serious competitive shooters who like to compete at the national level, such as at the NRA National High-Power Long Range matches and CMP (Civilian Marksmanship Program) matches at Camp Perry, Ohio, each summer.

Mil-Spec Chambers

Then there are Mil-Spec 5.56mm chambers. These are always chrome lined in the M16/M4s for the military and typically are for their semi-auto AR-15 brothers. The 5.56mm Mil-Spec chamber is slightly larger than a .223 SAAMI spec chamber because the Mil-Spec ammo is loaded hotter and has higher chamber pressures.

Benefit #1: Use Both .223 and 5.56 Ammo

So the supreme benefit of 5.56 chambers is that you can shoot .223 ammo and 5.56 out of a 5.56 chamber without reliability or safety concerns. That gives you the flexibility to take advantage of the great military surplus ammo bargains when they are available.

The downside is that, at greater distances, some shooters think they will see a decrease in accuracy shooting .223 ammo though a 5.56 chamber because the chamber is ever so slightly larger.

I think that is arguable. I know what you are thinking: “How much decrease in accuracy?” and “At what distances does it make a difference?”

I believe that 95% of shooters will not see a measurable difference, except at extreme distances for which they may not have the training to shoot effectively anyway. Remember, when it comes to shooting, most of the time “It’s the Indian, not the arrow.” Remember, I am talking about .223 ammo through a 5.56 chamber only—not 5.56 through a 5.56 chamber.

Benefit #2: The 5.56mm Chamber Has a Slightly Longer Throat

The second benefit of a 5.56mm chamber is that it also has a slightly longer throat/free bore area. In simpler English, that means that there is more space between the projectile and the rifling. Remember when I explained what happens when you try to eject a live round when it is 77 grains or above from a .223 chamber (not a .223 Match chamber)? Well that does not happen with 5.56mm chambers because of the longer throat.

Benefit #3: Availability of Ammo

The third benefit of having a 5.56mm chamber on your AR is a little paranoid, but not unfounded, although I pray it never happens. Some of my prepper fans out there believe there may be martial law one day in America, which would include an attempted disarmament of Americans.5.56 NATO Ammunition

That is what Hitler did, so it is not unimaginable.

In any case, nobody can argue that, in an extended time under martial law, you might only be able to get ammo by stealing it off the back of a Humvee—if you do not get shot trying to in the first place. I would want an AR-15 with a 5.56mm chamber so you can shoot military ammo through it without added potential reliability problems, and remember, you will still be able to shoot .223 ammo as well.

There is a way to ream out a .223 chamber and make it 5.56mm. I have heard that it is easy, although I have never done it. You might be able to find the reamer, but if I wanted that, I would have it done by a reputable gunsmith.

What should I buy?

So now you may be thinking, “This is really confusing; just tell me what I should get.”

So if I could only afford one AR, I would get one with a 5.56mm chamber.

I also would not trust the labeling on the spec sheet on the manufacturer’s website or even in the owner’s manual that any AR-15 is 5.56mm or .223/5.56mm. I have tested ARs lately that claim, in writing, .223/5.56mm on their website spec sheets and in the owner’s manual that came with the AR. When I called the manufacturer and asked if the chamber is 5.56mm or is it .223, the manufacturer tech help person dismissively told me it is both.

I stuck to my guns (forgive the pun) and said, “It can’t be both; either the chamber is SAAMI spec .223 Rem. or the chamber is Mil-Spec 5.56mm; which is it?”

Then, from one USA manufacturer, I received the response, “Well, it’s a .223 chamber, but you can shoot both through it.” Another USA manufacturer told me, “I can’t put you through to a tech person, but you can email me, and I will forward your email.”

I did email that customer-service person who could not answer my question, and I confirmed receipt of my email and that the rep forwarded it to the “appropriate person.” That was more than a week ago as of the time I am writing this, and still I have had no response. I will not own or recommend any of their ARs for the foreseeable future.

Until next time, I will share with you what Ron Mida, one of my shooting mentors always told me, “Shoot Straight!”

SLRule

Jerry Kraus is a U.S. Army Airborne Infantry veteran and competitive shooter. He has hunted big game in Alaska and Africa. Jerry is a frequent freelance writer published in Soldier of Fortune magazine. Feel free to connect with him on Facebook or LinkedIn

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Comments (213)

  • Derek

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    This is easy. If you buy a 5.56 chambered gun, you can run both the 5.56 and the .223. If you buy a .223 chambered gun, you CANNOT run 5.56 ammo in it. They create a lot more pressure as they are loaded per Mil specs. You’ll end up with split cases, possibly injury to you and damage to your gun. I’ve heard some people say or comment on here you can shoot a 5.56 in a .223 chamber. Simply not true! Period! Now there are some guns that have a Wylde chamber. They are designed to run both safely. So if you want to shoot both calibers, then get a 5.56 gun, or one with a “Wylde” chamber. It’s that simple. Anyone that says you can safely shoot 5.56’s out of a .223 chambered gun, is ignorant and most importantly WRONG. Just Google it and you’ll se I’m 100% correct!

    Reply

  • Karlos

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    Thank you for this article. It was very educational.

    Reply

  • Derek

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    It’s a never ending question for folks new to the AR15. Here’s the straight shot: Forget what it may say in a description about what a particular AR15 will shoot caliber wise. You must look at what’s stamped on the barrel to be sure. If it says 5.56, then you can shoot both the 5.56 NATO AND the .223. If it says only says .223, then that’s all you can shoot. The 5.56 NATO creates higher pressures and requires more headspace. It’s not safe at all to try and shoot a 5.56 in a chamber only marked only .223. You can damage your gun and yourself! Now, if the chamber is labeled 5.56/.223, you can also shoot both rounds safely also and be fine. Typically, these are called “Wylde” chambers and a good barrel to have. A bit less common. Again, If you want a 5.56 make sure it’s stamped on the barrel!! Here’s a link to the “Wylde” chamber at the end just in case you’re interested. Good luck and have fun choosing your new gun! There’s so many to choose from now! A lot of good ones for $1,100-$2,200 range. Don’t believe anybody that says it’s fine to put a 5.56 in a .223 only chamber!! If you have any doubts, go straight to the mfg. and check with them first, email, phone, etc. “Wylde” chamber link: (https://www.google.com/?gws_rd=ssl#q=wylde+chamber)

    Just paste it into your browser if it doesn’t create a link when I send this to you.

    Reply

  • Lance Robinson

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    I’m in the market for an AR chambered in true 5.56 MIL spec, and this double label crap has been driving me nuts. ASSHOLES, the lot of them. If the chamber isn’t 5.56mm Mil-Spec then don’t even bother putting 5.56 in the description! So much for integrity. Looking at the Rugar AR-556 at the moment. I miss the days you could pick up a decent SKS for $75. Damn.

    Reply

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